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INES (International Nuclear Event Scale)


INES - International Assessment Scale - Image from GRS

INES level 0 - 7 / short name

Level 0 - 7
1st aspect:

Radiological effects outside the facility

2st aspect:

Radiological effects within the facility

3st aspect:

Impairment of safety precautions

INES category 7
7 Catastrophic accident
Severest release:

Effects on health and the environment in a wide range

INES category 6
6 Serious accident
Significant release:

Full commitment of the disaster control measures

INES category 5
5 Serious accident
Limited release:

Use of individual disaster control measures

Serious damage to the reactor core / radiological barriers  
INES category 4
4 accident
Low release:

Radiation exposure of the population approximately at the level of natural radiation exposure

Limited damage to the reactor core / radiological barriers

Radiation exposure among personnel resulting in death

INES category 3
3 Serious incident
Very low release:

Radiation exposure of the population equal to a fraction of the natural radiation exposure

Heavy contamination

Acute damage to the health of staff

Almost an accident

Extensive failure of the staggered safety precautions

INES category 2
2 incident
  Significant contamination

Inadmissibly high radiation exposure among staff


Limited failure of the staggered safety precautions

INES category 1
1 fault
    Deviation from the permissible ranges for the safe operation of the system
INES category 0
0 Reportable event
    No or very little relevance to safety


Sources  List of Incidents Top


INES! What's happening?

The INES event list only includes events from the last 12 months.
A complete list, at least since the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) was founded in 1957, has not been available from the IAEA. Questions on the subject have been ignored so far...

Two or three questions arise involuntarily:

1. Does the Collaboration of the WHO to IAEA, OECD / NEA and WANO ensure that transparency becomes concealment?

2. Was INES created to prevent clarity?

3. Is the gardener IAEA possibly a billy goat?


SPIEGEL report on concealed accidents in nuclear power plants all over the world

Spiegel 17/1987

The cold shiver runs down my spine

Mankind has slid past the catastrophe several times by a hair's breadth. This is revealed by 48 accident reports, which were concealed by the IAEA - International Atomic Energy Agency: breakdowns often of the most bizarre, most mundane kind from the United States and Argentina to Bulgaria and Pakistan ...


INES condition is not good!

Be in the INES Nuclear Event List Fukushima on March 12, 2011 and Chernobyl on April 26, 1986 as INES Category 7 and the almost super disaster from Harrisburg on March 28, 1979 as a Category 5 classified.

However, the release of radioactivity into the environment was on:

28 March 1979 in Harrisburg with 3,7 million TBq (INES Category 5)
much higher than on
11 March 2011 in Fukushima with 1,59 million TBq (INES Category 7),
The INES classification appears similarly confused in comparison with the
26 April 1986 in Chernobyl with 5,2 million TBq (INES Category 7).


It is just as incomprehensible to me why the accident occurred in the THTR 300 in Hamm / Uentrop only as INES Category 0 classified, although on May 4th and 5th, 1986 highly radioactive graphite dust was blown into the environment. According to the INES criteria, even a "Very small release of radioactivity into the environment" is considered INES Category 3 Serious incident to rate.

The situation is similar with an accident in Canada on March 17, 2011 at the Pickering / Ontario nuclear power plant, in this accident 73.000 liters of tritium-contaminated water were discharged into Lake Ontario and to this day there is no INES classification. Other incidents could apparently not be classified correctly because the situation in the mix has allegedly remained unclear to this day (e.g Gundremmingen 1975 and 1977).

A number of other incidents only became known years later and thus managed not to appear in INES at all or only years later. For example, a near-super meltdown in Argentina's Embalse nuclear power plant 30 June 1983 and 1986, or the release of radioactivity on a massive scale at the Russian reprocessing plants Tomsk 7 1993 and Mayak 2017  ...


Incomprehensible or no INES classification?!

Only the data transmitted by the operator can be recorded. The IAEA can only take action if secret accidents become known through external measurements or whistleblowers - it then requests information from the operators of the nuclear facilities and hopes for an answer. While operators are required to provide information, often enough they just don't; cooperation with the IAEA is voluntary. This sometimes insufficient cooperation means that in some cases the radioactivity released can only be estimated.


Excerpt from the self-portrayal:

The INES Scale

The International Scale of Nuclear and Radiological Incidents (INES) is a tool to convey to the public the safety significance of nuclear and radiological incidents. The scale can be applied to events occurring at various facilities (e.g. NPPs, fuel cycle facilities, research reactors and accelerators, and facilities related to radioactive waste) and associated with a wide range of activities...

Translated with (free version)


The following 2 articles bring some light into the darkness:


1st article

Spiegel article from July 08, 2016

Nuclear power risk: when will the next nuclear power plant blow up?

In summary:

Risk researchers have doubts about the calculation methods with which the occurrence of accidents in nuclear power plants can be estimated. Above all, the short gap of just 25 years between the Chernobyl and Fukushima disasters does not match the long periods of time without serious incidents with which the operators operate. It is possible that the risks of nuclear power are systematically underestimated ...


2st article

An objective size scale for nuclear accidents to quantify serious and catastrophic events 

David Smithe

PHYSICS TODAY December 12, 2011

translation with (free version):


Deficits in the existing International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) have become clear through comparisons between the accidents in 2011 at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant and 1986 in Chernobyl.

(Note - both were named INES Category 7 although 1986 million TBq of radioactivity were released in Chernobyl in 5,2 and 2011 TBq in Fukushima in 1,59.)

- First, the scale is essentially a discrete qualitative ranking that is not defined beyond event level 7.

Second, it was designed as a public relations tool, not an objective scientific scale.

Third, its most serious shortcoming is that it confuses size and intensity.

I propose a new quantitative size scale for nuclear accidents (NAMS). It uses the earthquake magnitude approach to calculate the accident magnitude M = log (20R), where R = atmospheric release of radioactivity outside the site, normalized to iodine-131 equivalents Terabecquerel ...



Nuclear power accidents

Since the "INES Nuclear Event List" has proven to be of limited use for empirical analyzes, three risk researchers from the University of Sussex and ETH Zurich, Spencer Wheatley, Benjamin Sovacool and Didier Sornette, compiled their own list of nuclear accidents for their work and published on March 22, 2016 in the magazine "Risk Analysis"published an article on the subject. This list contains some accidents which, for whatever reason, did not make it onto the INES list ...


NAMS - Nuclear Accident Magnitude Scale

The Nuclear Accident Magnitude Scale by David Smythe seeks to correct the shortcomings of the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) by, unlike INES:

 - is continuous and open at the top

 - is linked to an objective variable (TBq)

 - Separates magnitude from intensity

Analogous to the two earthquake scales:

One scale evaluates the physical strength of the earthquake, the other considers the destructive effect of the earthquake, which depends, among other things, on geological and structural factors. This can be seen, for example, when the core meltdown in the Lucens research reactor (1969) is compared with the fire in Windscale (1957). Both accidents were rated 5 on the INES scale, although the much more serious incident took place in Lucens - but thanks to the underground construction of the reactor, there was no radioactive contamination of the area.

The NAMS is based on the amount of radioactivity that is released into the atmosphere and the environment outside of the reactor site polluted ...


Data from various sources (Nuclear Power Incidents & Accidents, NAMES - Nuclear Accident Magnitude Scale, INES - International Nuclear Event Scale, Wikipedia and last but not least AtomkraftwerkePlag) I have in the following listing 'Incidents and accidents in nuclear facilities'' and created the following PDF file from the raw data:


Here is an excerpt from the PDF:

Nuclear Power Accidents (PDF)

The Dirtiest Dozen...

Date, location and release of radioactivity in Terabecquerel (sorted by Release TBq), the classification in NAMS and in INES as well as the costs in millions of dollars (dollar rate of 2013):






(million US$)

26 April 1986 Chernobyl, UKR 5,2 Million 8 7 259336
28 March 1979 TMI, Harrisburg, USA 3,7 Million 7,9 5 10910
11 March 2011 Fukushima, JPN 1,59 Million 7,5 7 166089
29 Sep 1957 Mayak, USSR 1,0 Million 7,3 6 1733
11 Sep 1957 Rocky Flats, United States 7800 2,3 5 8189
1 April 1967 Mayak, USSR 5600 5 5 ?
6 April 1993 Seversk, RUS 3500 4,8 4 51.4
Oct. 7th, 1957th Windscale, UK 1786 4,6 5 89.9
25 March 1955 Sellafield, UK 1000 4,3 4 4400
1 May 1968 Sellafield, UK 550 4 4 1900
19 June 1961 Sellafield, UK 540 4 3 800
10 April 2003 Paks, HUN 360 3,9 3 42.8

and much more ...

INES and the List of Incidents and Accidents in Nuclear Facilities



Sources  List of Incidents Top



What is Becquerel - Unit of Radioactivity - Definition

A becquerel is the SI unit for measuring the amount of radioactivity. One becquerel (1Bq) equals 1 decay per second. Becquerel (symbol Bq). The Becquerel is named after Henri Becquerel, a French physicist who discovered radioactivity in 1896. radiation dosimetry.

1ci = 3,7 × 10 10 Bq = 37 GB q (1 curie = 37 giga becquerels)


INES (International Nuclear Event Scale)

INES NEWS Events - The current incident reports from the IAEA ...

Nuclear power accidents

Since the "INES Nuclear Event List" has proven to be of limited use for empirical analyzes, three risk researchers from the University of Sussex and ETH Zurich, Spencer Wheatley, Benjamin Sovacool and Didier Sornette, compiled their own list of nuclear accidents for their work and published on March 22, 2016 in the magazine "Risk Analysis"published an article on the subject. This list contains some accidents which, for whatever reason, did not make it onto the INES list ...

Event List Nuclear Power Incidents and Accidents (PDF)

NAMS - Nuclear Accident Magnitude Scale

Data from different lists in one PDF file...

Nuclear Power Accidents + NAMS + INES (PDF)


Also read the article in '' from July 08.07.2016th, XNUMX:
Nuclear power risk: when will the next nuclear power plant blow up?

- from March 11, 2014:

Cost of nuclear accidents - Fukushima, Chernobyl and many others

- -



nuclear accidents

Other nuclear accidents and incidents

- -


Nuclear weapons AZ:

nuclear weapon states

- -


A number of accidents and releases of radioactivity are in the Wikipedia no longer to be found.


List of nuclear power plants - worldwide

List of nuclear facilities - worldwide

List of accidents in nuclear facilities - worldwide
Accident --- INES 4 until 7

List of faults in European nuclear power plants
Incident --- INES 1 until 3

List of reportable events in German nuclear facilities
Reportable Event --- INES 0


Wikipedia - German:

List of nuclear power accidents by country

List of nuclear and radiation fatalities by country

List of military nuclear accidents

List of civilian nuclear accidents

- -


'Nothing at all' Information about Gundremmingen.


Der Spiegel:

When will the next nuclear power plant blow up? --08.07.2016

The nuclear state - Japan in May 2011

The cold shiver runs down my spine - Mirror 17/1987

The THTR incident in the "Spiegel" - Germany in June 1986

Information about Gundremmingen - Germany in November 1975

Los Alamos - Forbidden City - USA in December 1962

Lucky Dragon V. - a Japanese fishing boat near Bikini Atoll in March 1954

- -



World Nuclear Industry Status Report (WNISR)



Nuclear supervision in Germany

In Germany, the term refers to the nuclear supervisory and licensing authorities, which, like the financial authorities, are based in the federal states, while legislative competence in nuclear law lies with the federal government. As a rule, the German nuclear regulatory authorities are assigned to the relevant Ministry of the Environment and oversee the safety of all relevant areas of the nuclear facilities in the respective federal state and approve all essential safety-related changes...


Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety

Federal Office for Radiation Protection

- -


State ministries for the environment:

Ministry for the Environment, Climate Protection and the Energy Sector Baden-Wuerttemberg;

Bavarian State Ministry for the Environment and Consumer Protection;

Hessian Ministry for the Environment, Climate Protection, Agriculture and Consumer Protection;

Ministry of Agriculture, Environment and Consumer Protection of the State of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania;

Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Agriculture and Consumer Protection of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia;

Ministry of the Environment, Agriculture, Food, Viticulture and Forests RLP;

Saxon State Ministry for Environment and Agriculture;



Atomic authorities, responsible for supervision, funding
and sometimes also for cover-up:

IAEA - International Atomic Energy Agency

Belgium: FANK Federal Agency for Nuclear Control

China: China National Nuclear Corporation

Finland: STUK Säteilyturvakeskus

France: ASN Autorité de surete nucléaire

Great Britain: Office for Nuclear Regulation

India: AERB Atomic Energy Regulatory Board

Iran: Iranian Atomic Energy Organization

Israel: Israel Atomic Energy Commission

Japan: Japanese Nuclear Regulatory Agency

Netherlands: KFD nuclear physical service

Russia: Rostekhnadzor

Sweden: SSM Strålsäkerhetsmyndigheten

Switzerland: ENSI Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate

Spain: CSN Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear

South Korea: Nuclear Safety and Security Commission

Czech Republic: SUJB State Office for Nuclear Safety

USA: NRC Nuclear Regulatory Commission


We are looking for current information. If you can help, please send a message to:



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Donation appeal

- The THTR circular is published by the 'BI Environmental Protection Hamm' and is financed by donations.

- The THTR circular has meanwhile become a much-noticed information medium. However, there are ongoing costs due to the expansion of the website and the printing of additional information sheets.

- The THTR circular researches and reports in detail. In order for us to be able to do that, we depend on donations. We are happy about every donation!

Donations account:

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Purpose: THTR circular
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