Nuclear world The uranium story
INES and the nuclear accidents Radioactive low radiation?!
Uranium transports through Europe The ABC deployment concept

INES (International Nuclear Event Scale)

and the list of incidents and accidents in nuclear facilities


Radioactive events of the years:
2019-2010 2009-2000 1999-1990 1989-1980
1979-1970 1969-1960 1959-1950 1949-1940

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INES - International Assessment Scale - Image from GRS

INES level 0 - 7 / short name

Level 0 - 7
Aspects
1st aspect:

Radiological effects outside the facility

2st aspect:

Radiological effects within the facility

3st aspect:

Impairment of safety precautions

INES category 7
7 Catastrophic accident
Severest release:

Effects on health and the environment in a wide range

INES category 6
6 Serious accident
Significant release:

Full commitment of the disaster control measures

INES category 5
5 Serious accident
Limited release:

Use of individual disaster control measures

Serious damage to the reactor core / radiological barriers
INES category 4
4 accident
Low release:

Radiation exposure of the population approximately at the level of natural radiation exposure

Limited damage to the reactor core / radiological barriers

Radiation exposure among personnel resulting in death

INES category 3
3 Serious incident
Very low release:

Radiation exposure of the population equal to a fraction of the natural radiation exposure

Heavy contamination

Acute damage to the health of staff

Almost an accident

Extensive failure of the staggered safety precautions

INES category 2
2 incident
  Significant contamination

Inadmissibly high radiation exposure among staff

Accident

Limited failure of the staggered safety precautions

INES category 1
1 fault
    Deviation from the permissible ranges for the safe operation of the system
INES category 0
0 Reportable event
    No or very little relevance to safety

***

INES! What's happening?

The INES event list only includes events from the last 12 months.

A complete archive, at least since the founding of the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) in 1957, does not exist. Inquiries on the topic have been ignored so far ...

Two or three questions arise involuntarily:

1. Take care of the Collaboration that WHO with IAEA, OECD / NEA and WANO that transparency becomes obfuscation?

2. Was INES created to prevent clarity?

3. Is the gardener possibly a billy goat?

 

SPIEGEL report on hidden nuclear power plant incidents around the world

Humanity has slipped past the catastrophe several times by a hair's breadth. This is revealed by 48 accident reports that were kept secret by the Vienna International Atomic Energy Agency: breakdowns, often of the most bizarre, profane kind from the United States and Argentina to Bulgaria and Pakistan ...

The cold shiver runs down my spine Mirror 17/1987

 

INES condition is not good!

Be in the INES Nuclear Event List Fukushima on March 12, 2011 and Chernobyl on April 26, 1986 as INES Category 7 and the almost super disaster from Harrisburg on March 28, 1979 as a Category 5 classified.

However, the release of radioactivity into the environment was on

28. March 1979 in Harrisburg with 3,7 million TBq (INES Category 5)
much higher than on
11. March 2011 in Fukushima with 1,59 million TBq (INES Category 7),
The INES classification appears similarly confused in comparison with the
April 26, 1986 in Chernobyl with 5,2 million TBq (INES Category 7).

 

It is just as incomprehensible to me why the accident occurred in the THTR 300 in Hamm / Uentrop only as INES Category 0 was classified even though highly radioactive graphite dust was released into the environment on May 4th and 5th, 1986, because according to the INES criteria even a "very low release of radioactivity into the environment" is considered to be INES Category 3 Serious incident to rate.

The situation is similar with an accident in Canada on March 17, 2011 at the Pickering / Ontario nuclear power plant, 73.000 liters of contaminated water were discharged into Lake Ontario in this accident and there is still no INES classification. Apparently, other incidents could not be classified correctly because the situation is said to have remained unclear to this day (e.g. Gundremmingen 1975 and 1977).

 

I later found the following articles that shed some light on the inconsistency of the INES ratings:

1. - Item out PHYSICS TODAY December 12, 2011

Translated with www.DeepL.com/Translator (free version):

An objective size scale for nuclear accidents to quantify serious and catastrophic events 

David Smithe

Deficits in the existing International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) have become clear through comparisons between the accidents in 2011 at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant and 1986 in Chernobyl.

(Note - both were named INES Category 7 although 1986 million TBq of radioactivity were released in Chernobyl in 5,2 and 2011 TBq in Fukushima in 1,59.)

 - First, the scale is essentially a discrete qualitative ranking that is not defined beyond event level 7.

 Second, it was designed as a public relations tool, not an objective scientific scale.

 Third, its most serious shortcoming is that it confuses size and intensity.

I propose a new quantitative size scale for nuclear accidents (NAMS). It uses the earthquake magnitude approach to calculate the accident magnitude M = log (20R), where R = atmospheric release of radioactivity outside the site, normalized to iodine-131 equivalents Terabecquerel ...

 

2. - Article from spiegel.de from July 08th, 2016: 

Nuclear power risk: when will the next nuclear power plant blow up?

In summary:

Risk researchers have doubts about the calculation methods with which the occurrence of accidents in nuclear power plants can be estimated. Above all, the short gap of just 25 years between the Chernobyl and Fukushima disasters does not match the long periods of time without serious incidents with which the operators operate. It is possible that the risks of nuclear power are systematically underestimated ...

 

**

Nuclear power accidents

Since the "INES Nuclear Event List" has proven to be of limited use for empirical analyzes, three risk researchers from the University of Sussex and ETH Zurich, Spencer Wheatley, Benjamin Sovacool and Didier Sornette, have their own for their work List of nuclear accidents compiled and published on March 22, 2016 in the magazine "Risk Analysis"published an article on the subject. This list contains some accidents which, for whatever reason, did not make it onto the INES list ...

 

NAMS - Nuclear Accident Magnitude Scale

The Nuclear Accident Magnitude Scale by David Smythe seeks to correct the shortcomings of the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) by, unlike INES:

 - is continuous and open at the top

 - is linked to an objective variable (TBq)

 - Separates magnitude from intensity

Analogous to the two earthquake scales:

One scale evaluates the physical strength of the earthquake, the other considers the destructive effect of the earthquake, which depends, among other things, on geological and structural factors. This can be seen, for example, when the core meltdown in the Lucens research reactor (1969) is compared with the fire in Windscale (1957). Both accidents were rated 5 on the INES scale, although the much more serious incident took place in Lucens - but thanks to the underground construction of the reactor, there was no radioactive contamination of the area.

The NAMS is based on the amount of radioactivity that is released into the atmosphere and the environment outside of the reactor site polluted ...

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_Accident_Magnitude_Scale

 

Data from various sources (Nuclear Power Incidents & Accidents, NAMES - Nuclear Accident Magnitude Scale, INES - International Nuclear Event Scale, Wikipedia and last but not least Nuclear power plants plague) I have in the following listing 'Incidents and accidents in nuclear facilities'' and created the following PDF file from the raw data:

 

Nuclear Power Accidents + NAMS + INES (PDF)

 

Here is an excerpt from the PDF: The dirtiest dozen ...

Date, location and release of radioactivity in Terabecquerel, the classification in the NAMS and INES lists and the costs in millions of dollars (2013 dollar rate):

Date

Date(s)

Location

Location

Release (TBq)

 Terabecquerel

NAMES

 

INES

 

Cost

(million US $)

April 26, 1986 Chernobyl,
UKR
5,2 Million 8 7 259336
28. March 1979 TMI, Harrisburg,
USA
3,7 Million 7,9 5 10910
11. March 2011 fukushima,
JPN
1,59 Million 7,5 7 166089
Sept. 29, 1957 mayak,
USSR
1,0 Million 7,3 6 1733
Sept. 11, 1957 rocky flats,
USA
7800 2,3 5 8189
April 1, 1967 mayak,
USSR
5600 5 5 0
April 6, 1993 Seversk,
RUSSIAN
3500 4,8 4 51.4
Oct. 7th, 1957th windscale,
UK
1786 4,6 5 89.9
25. March 1955 Sellafield,
UK
1000 4,3 4 4400
1. May 1968 Sellafield,
UK
550 4 4 1900
19th of June 1961 Sellafield,
UK
540 4 3 800
April 10, 2003 packs,
HUN
360 3,9 3 42.8

 and much more.

***

List of incidents and accidents
in nuclear facilities


Radioactive events of the years:
2019-2010 2009-2000 1999-1990 1989-1980
1979-1970 1969-1960 1959-1950 1949-1940

***


To the references at the end of this pageTo the references to the topUp to the top of the page - www.reaktorpleite.de -

12.03.2011 - Fukushima shook us all up. But I didn't want to sink into silent devotion and dismay forever or perform any pointless skipping actions. Walking around the street waving flags, yelling slogans and listening to politicians' hypocritical gossip, it's not really my cup of tea. So I started making this list. I had been missing such a - hopefully somewhat - complete overview since the early 1980s, but had always been too lazy to do it myself - until spring 2011.

*

The mushroom cloud stands for atomic or hydrogen bombs, also in the context of testsNuclear weapons proving groundWhile working on this list, I 'stumbled upon' both of the two Atomic bombs over Japan as well as over the more than 2050 atomic bomb tests which have been carried out worldwide since 1945.

Quite 'off topic', because atomic bombs and their tests are not included in the INES list, but I did not want to and could not omit these and other facts about the 'release of radioactivity' ...

This is not the 'pure doctrine', I know and I apologize for it in advance.

Should I forget or overlook something important or have made any other mistake, please share your knowledge and point it out to me. I will follow up every serious tip and then incorporate new knowledge immediately.

 

Werner Neubauer

 

PS. While I worked hours and hours to compile this rather dull list of our radiant offenses since 1940, one thought kept floating through my head:

'The data on which this almost infinite lead desert is based should actually be garnished with pretty, colorful pictures.'

So soon after the preliminary completion of this list, with the help of Google Maps, I started the '"Map of the nuclear world" ' to create.

 

***


Radioactive events of the years:
2019-2010 2009-2000 1999-1990 1989-1980
1979-1970 1969-1960 1959-1950 1949-1940

***


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2017

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September 03 - P'unggye-ri, North Korea's sixth nuclear bomb test

The mushroom cloud stands for atomic or hydrogen bombs, also in the context of testsNuclear weapons proving groundOn September 03rd, 2017 at 11:00 a.m. local time, earthquake monitoring stations worldwide registered an artificially caused earthquake in North Korea. According to the Chinese Earthquake Office, it had a magnitude of 6,3 - the authority corrected initial American measurements that had initially indicated 5,6. North Korea announced the successful test of a hydrogen bomb. As in the previous tests, the hypocenter was in the Kilchu region in the north-east of the country, which is also where the P'unggye-ri nuclear weapons test site is located.

So far it was the last of the total 2056 Nuclear weapons tests worldwide ...

As a consequence of this nuclear test, the UN Security Council will decide to further tighten sanctions against North Korea ...

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nordkoreanisches_Kernwaffenprogramm

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Punggye-ri_(Testgelände)

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liste_von_Kernwaffentests

-

https://www.atomwaffena-z.info/heute/atomwaffenstaaten.html

***


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2016

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September 09 - P'unggye-ri, North Korea's fifth nuclear bomb test

The mushroom cloud stands for atomic or hydrogen bombs, also in the context of testsNuclear weapons proving groundOn September 09, 2016 at around 2:30 a.m.CET, earthquake stations in South Korea, China, the USA and Europe registered a magnitude 5,3 earthquake in North Korea. A few hours later, North Korea announced that it had successfully tested an atomic bomb.

As a consequence of this nuclear test, the UN Security Council will decide to further tighten sanctions against North Korea ...

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nordkoreanisches_Kernwaffenprogramm

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Punggye-ri_(Testgelände)

-

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liste_von_Kernwaffentests

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https://www.atomwaffena-z.info/heute/atomwaffenstaaten.html

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January 04 - P'unggye-ri, North Korea's fourth nuclear bomb test

The mushroom cloud stands for atomic or hydrogen bombs, also in the context of testsNuclear weapons proving groundOn January 06, 2016 at around 2:30 a.m.CET, earthquake stations in South Korea, China, the USA and Europe registered an artificially caused earthquake with a magnitude of 5,1 in North Korea. About an hour later, North Korea announced the successful test of a hydrogen bomb. 

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nordkoreanisches_Kernwaffenprogramm

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Punggye-ri_(Testgelände)

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liste_von_Kernwaffentests

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https://www.atomwaffena-z.info/heute/atomwaffenstaaten.html

***


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2015

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18th of August - Blaaiis, FRA INES category 2

Accidental overexposure of a worker to a dose of ionizing radiation exceeding regulation limits.

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

-

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Blayais

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Blayais_(Frankreich)

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28th of May - Cattenom, FRAINES category 1

Unexpected opening of a valve in the secondary system, which resulted in an escape of steam

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

-

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Cattenom

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Cattenom_(Frankreich)

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2014

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INES category 117th of May - Tarapore, Maharashtra, IND

Overdosage of a worker during a transfer process of an irradiated neutron detector.

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Tarapur

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Tarapur_(Indien)

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2013

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September 26 - hats, NLDINES category 2

Three out of six control rods showed defects and the power plant had to be shut down for 5 months.

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

-

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Institut_f%C3%BCr_Energie

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Niederlande

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April 24 - Blaaiis, FRA INES category 2

Unintentional overdose by an employee beyond the legal limit.

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

-

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Blayais

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Blayais_(Frankreich)

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February 12th - P'unggye-ri, North Korea's third nuclear test

The mushroom cloud stands for atomic or hydrogen bombs, also in the context of testsNuclear weapons proving groundOn February 12, 2013 at around 12 p.m. local time (4 a.m. CET), earthquake control centers in several countries recorded an artificially caused quake with a magnitude of 4,9 to 5,2 in North Korea. The hypocenter was about a kilometer below the surface in the Kilchu region in the northeast of the country, where the P'unggye-ri nuclear weapons test site is located. The state news agency KCNA had previously announced a "high-intensity action". After the earthquake, KCNA announced an underground test of a light, miniaturized nuclear weapon, but of greater strength than before. The explosive power was estimated by South Korea at 6 to 7 kilotons of TNT equivalent, which is about half the explosive power of the Hiroshima atomic bomb. German experts from the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) estimated the explosive force at 40 kilotons. 

As a result of this nuclear weapon test, the UN Security Council unanimously decided on March 7, 2013 to tighten sanctions against North Korea. Among other things, travel bans and account freezes were decided. Before the Security Council meeting, the North Korean leadership had threatened the United States and South Korea with a pre-emptive nuclear strike for the first time. In response to the new UN sanctions, North Korea canceled its non-aggression pact with South Korea and all other related agreements hours later. The permanent connection channel to the south known as the “red telephone” will also be closed. North Korea also announced an expansion of its nuclear technology program ...

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nordkoreanisches_Kernwaffenprogramm

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Punggye-ri_(Testgelände)

-

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liste_von_Kernwaffentests

-

https://www.atomwaffena-z.info/heute/atomwaffenstaaten.html

***


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2012

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January 18 - Cattenom, FRA

INES category 2

On January 18, 2012, there was an incident of level INES 2. A missing component did not prevent the backflow in the cooling lines of the storage pool of the fuel elements of units 2 and 3. The storage pool could have been emptied in an uncontrolled manner. As a result of a malfunction, the cooling water feed line for the spent fuel assemblies could - instead of feeding in water regularly - suck in water from the basin, which would slowly empty it and lead to larger releases of radioactivity. Normally there is a device to interrupt this suction process. In January it was discovered in Cattenom that this had never been installed in blocks 2 and 3. If the basin had been emptied there, the last countermeasure would have been to pump in external water, for example from the river, with tank fire trucks and hose connections. INES 2 ...

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Cattenom

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Cattenom_(Frankreich)

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2011

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17. March - Pickering, Ontario, CAN

According to the operator, 73.000 liters of water from the Pickering nuclear power plant flowed into the lake on the border between Canada and the USA because of a sealing problem on a pump. According to the information, the water contained traces of tritium, a radioactive material. For reasons not known to me, there was no INES classification for this incident ...

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Pickering

-

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Pickering_(Kanada)

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13. March - Target, BEL INES category 2

On March 13, 2011, damage to the water pump in Unit 4 was discovered and classified as INES Level 2.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Doel

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Doel_(Belgien)

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12. March - Fukushima 2 Daini, JPN INES category 3

Due to the great Tōhoku earthquake of March 11, 2011 and the subsequent tsunami, all four reactor blocks in the Fukushima-Daini (Fukushima II) nuclear power plant were automatically switched off.

On March 12.03.2011, 1, the temperature in the condensation chambers of units 2, 4 and 100 rose to over 10 ° C and the pressure reduction systems ceased to function. For Fukushima II, an evacuation zone with a radius of 20 kilometers was ordered. The evacuation area of ​​Fukushima II was almost entirely within the 3 km evacuation zone for Fukushima I Daiichi. The temperature in the 15 reactors only fell below 100 ° C on March XNUMXth.

On April 18.04.2011, 3, the Japanese nuclear regulatory authority (NISA) rated the events in Fukushima-Daini as INES level XNUMX.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chronologie_der_Katastrophe_in_Japan_von_2011

-

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Fukushima_Daini_(Japan)

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 12. March - Fukushima 1 Daiichi, JPN INES category 7

Due to the damage to the power supply and cooling system, which were caused by the great Tōhoku earthquake of March 11, 2011 and the subsequent tsunami, as well as the lack of cables for mobile power generators, it occurred in three out of six at the Fukushima-Daiichi (Fukushima I) nuclear power plant Reactor blocks to overheating of the reactor core.

There were several explosions:
In Block 1 on March 12th,
in block 3 on March 14th and
in block 2 on March 15th,

in which the outer building shells were destroyed and radioactive material was released. In addition, on March 15, a fire broke out in reactor block 4. The reactor cores of Units 1 and 3 were flooded with seawater and boric acid for makeshift cooling and to protect against radioactive radiation. The Japanese government ordered evacuation measures with a radius of 20 km, which have affected around 80.000 people so far.

The events in blocks 1 to 3 were provisionally assigned to level INES 18 by the Japanese nuclear regulatory authority (NISA) on March 2011, 5. However, on March 15, the French atomic safety authority Autorité de sûreté nucléaire (ASN) and the US Institute for Science and International Security (ISIS) rated the incidents as INES level 6.

On April 12.04.2011, 7, the Japanese Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NISA) put Fukushima-Daiichi on a level with the Chernobyl disaster (INES level XNUMX) ...

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chronologie_der_Katastrophe_in_Japan_von_2011

-

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Fukushima_Daiichi_(Japan)

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February 16th - tricastine, FRA INES category 2

On February 16, it was found that in more than half of the emergency diesel generators in units 3 and 4, some individual parts that were used two years ago for the purpose of replacement can fail prematurely if the diesel is running for a longer period of time. In a test in another NPP, these quality deficiencies turned out to be the cause of total failure of the diesels, but only a small part of them were equipped with them there. In the event of failure of the external power network and the reserve network (emergency power supply), the power supply for cooling down the decay heat in the reactor core would not have been secured with Tricastin 3/4; in the worst case, it could even have led to a core meltdown in both units. (INES level 2)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Tricastin

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Tricastin_(Frankreich)

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2010

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January 2 - Vermont Yanks, USA

On August 27, 2013, the owner Entergy announced, despite the extended license, that the nuclear power plant should be decommissioned in 2014, as continued operation is no longer economically viable. The reason for the Senate decision was a Tritium leak into the underground of the plant, whereby the supervisory authority NRC had assured that there was no immediate threat to the groundwater and that the development was being monitored with measuring probes ...

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Vermont_Yankee

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Vermont_Yankee_(USA)

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US nuclear power plant - radioactive substances contaminate soil:

https://www.spiegel.de/wissenschaft/technik/us-atomkraftwerk-radioaktive-substanzen-verseuchen-boden-a-686621.html

***


Radioactive events of the years:
2019-2010 2009-2000 1999-1990 1989-1980
1979-1970 1969-1960 1959-1950 1949-1940

***


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2009

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December 27 - Fessenheim, FRA INES category 1

On December 27, a similar disturbance occurred at the Fessenheim NPP as before in Cruas, in which plant residues got into the cooling circuit when the reactor was started up (INES stage 1).

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Fessenheim

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Fessenheim_(Frankreich)

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December 02 - Cruas, FRA INES category 2

On December 2, in Block 4 of the Cruas NPP, leaves and other autumn debris collected in the river cooling water circuit and blocked it. The reactor was switched off and switched to hot standby with the flow-independent emergency feed via the steam generator. However, even after this process, the reactor core must be cooled further with the river cooling water - because of the ongoing decay - in so-called post-cooling mode so that it does not overheat and melt. The internal emergency plan was triggered and, as an emergency measure, the cooling pool cooling circuit for the spent fuel elements was connected to the reactor cooling circuit. After 5,5 hours, the blockage in the intake structure was cleared and normal after-cooling operation was restored. The incident was classified with INES 2.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Cruas

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Cruas_(Frankreich)

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15th October - Cadarache, FRA INES category 2

In the French nuclear facility Cadarache, 39 kilograms of plutonium were probably discovered as early as June during dismantling work. the Atomic Safety Agency ASN stopped the work on October 15 and classified the incident in INES Category 2. In addition, she accused the operator of not having reported the event in time ...

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cadarache

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Cadarache_(Frankreich)

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12th of August - Gravelines, FRA INES category 1

Assembly system failed to properly eject spent fuel rods from the Gravelines Nuclear Power Plant and caused the fuel rods to jam and the reactor to shutdown.

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Gravelines

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Gravelines_(Frankreich)

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25th of May - P'unggye-ri, North Korea's second atomic bomb test

The mushroom cloud stands for atomic or hydrogen bombs, also in the context of testsNuclear weapons proving groundUnderground, 10-20 kilotons (kT) - On May 25, 2009, the second nuclear test was conducted in North Korea. According to Russian information, the explosive device had an explosive force of 20 kilotons. In addition to the nuclear test, several short-range missiles were launched.

 

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nordkoreanisches_Kernwaffenprogramm

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Punggye-ri_(Testgelände)

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liste_von_Kernwaffentests

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https://www.atomwaffena-z.info/heute/atomwaffenstaaten.html

***


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2008

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Disgust, ESP INES category 1 - 3

Between September 5 and November 6, eight INES incidents were registered in the double-unit facility, five of them in Block II. (Source: CSN)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Ascó

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Asc%C3%B3_(Spanien)

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October - Gravelines 5, FR INES category 1 - 3

During the revision in June, the engine of one of the two emergency power diesels was replaced. After more than three months, in October, it was discovered that this replacement engine had not been properly installed: The diesel would not have been available for three months, which represents a redundancy failure that was far too long (source: ASN).

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Gravelines

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Gravelines_(Frankreich)

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25th of August - IRE Fleurus, BEL INES category 3

In the field of waste disposal at the Institute for Radionuclides (French: Institut des Radioéléments - IRE) in Fleurus, Belgium, an estimated 45 GBq of iodine-131 was released through the chimney during the transfer of liquid waste. The Belgian nuclear regulatory authority Agence Fédérale de Contrôle Nucleaire (AFCN) shut down the IRE, a producer of radioisotopes for the medical sector, immediately after the accident was reported. Six days after the incident, the police warned the residents about the consumption of fruit, vegetables, milk and water from the area via loudspeakers after the government's crisis team revoked the initial all-clear and activated the European information system ECURIE. The event was classified as a "Serious Incident" at level 3 on the INES scale.

https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Institut_national_des_radioéléments

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http://www.greenpeace.de/themen/energiewende/atomkraft/belgien-strahlenunfall-schwerer-als-gedacht

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15th of July - Santa Maria de Garona, ESP INES category 1 - 3

On July 15 and August 19, the plant's two battery systems were tested. According to the authority CSN, their determined capacity was insufficient. In the event of a malfunction, these direct current systems fulfill various safety functions, for example as a starting aid for the emergency diesel or display of the reactor status. The main problem with this event is that after the malfunction of the first system was discovered on July 15, the operator did not test the second system immediately, but only on August 19 ...

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Santa_María_de_Garoña

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Santa_Mar%C3%ADa_de_Garo%C3%B1a_(Spanien)

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July - tricastine, FRA INES category 1 - 3

On July 23, around 100 people were radioactively contaminated during maintenance work in the power plant, but below the dose limit values ​​(source: ASN)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Tricastin

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Tricastin_(Frankreich)

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July - Eurodif, FRA INES category 1 - 3

On July 8th, 30 cubic meters of radioactive liquid leaked from the uranium enrichment plant Eurodif and some of it got into the surrounding rivers (sources: ASN/ IRSN)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuklearanlage_Tricastin

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Tricastin_(Frankreich)

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June 06 - Philippsburg, ENG INES category 1

According to the Baden-Württemberg Ministry of the Environment, on the night of Friday June 6th, 2008, a pressure drop in the containment of Block I was found that exceeded the permissible values. The container, which encloses important parts of the reactor, has a slight overpressure of 20 millibars during normal operation. According to the ministry, the pressure drop determined was 1 millibars per hour and was due to a leak. The leak occurred when the system was started up after the overhaul and immediately after the tank was flooded with nitrogen. (INES level 1)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Philippsburg

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Philippsburg_(Baden-W%C3%BCrttemberg)

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June - Rivne, UKR INES category 1 - 3

Almost two weeks after Krško, the same scenario was repeated in the Ukrainian NPP Rivne / Rowno. This time the media reported very little or not at all. The power plant was temporarily disconnected from the grid.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Riwne

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Riwne_(Ukraine)

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June 04 - Krsko, SVN INES category 0

On June 4, 2008 at 15:07 pm there was a loss of coolant accident. Coolant had leaked in the main cooling system (primary circuit) and the reactor output was then throttled. The reactor was shut down and shut down completely at 20:10 p.m. to investigate the cause of the problem. According to the Slovenian nuclear supervisory authority, the leaked radioactive water was caught in the containment, a safety container. There were no effects outside of the nuclear power plant. The incident was classified as "unusual", the lowest level of danger.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Kr%C5%A1ko

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Kr%C5%A1ko_(Slowenien)

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May - Cruas 4, FR INES category 1 - 3

This block was in the revision standstill with the reactor open. Suddenly it was noticed that two valves of the residual heat removal were only partially open for a full four days, which significantly impeded the post-decay heat removal. Writes from an automatic alarm ASN nothing, it is therefore conceivable that the whole thing was only noticed after these four days through the appearance of steam in the reactor flood basin (Note: NPPs must also cool the fuel after the reactor has been cooled down and opened for the first time, as the fission products continue to with degressive intensity, decay). The fact that no unusual doses were apparently registered can be explained by the fact that the reactor water is technically cleaned before it is shut down.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Cruas

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Cruas_(Frankreich)

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April - Flamanville, FRA INES category 1 - 3

In block 2 of the Akw Flamanville was acc. to Nuclear Regulatory Authority ASN "Severe corrosion" found in the engine cooling lines of both emergency diesel generators. The safety reserves for an emergency power case were therefore small ...

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Flamanville

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Flamanville_(Frankreich)

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April - Disgust, ESP INES category 2

Discovery of radioactivity from the fuel assembly building on the factory premises. Although the doses were below the limit values, the CSN authority classified the incident with INES 2: The operator had misinterpreted clear indications (triggering activity alarms) for months and most recently provided the CSN with downplaying data ...

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Ascó

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Asc%C3%B3_(Spanien)

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February 04th - Crumbs, ENG

Krümmel - Geesthacht nuclear power plant - On the morning of February 4, 2008, a smoldering fire occurred in a ventilation system in the power plant. The nuclear regulatory authority then dispatched an expert. However, radioactivity had never leaked because the accident site was outside the reactor building. This incident again aroused great interest in the media and was used by numerous environmental protection organizations as an opportunity to repeatedly question the Krümmel NPP and the safety of nuclear energy. At this time, the power plant had been idle since 2007.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Krümmel

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Kr%C3%BCmmel_(Schleswig-Holstein)

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February - The Hague, FRA INES category 1 - 3

The highly active substances treated in this reprocessing plant continuously release explosive hydrogen which, when reacting with oxygen, threatens the building's tightness, which is much more vulnerable than in western nuclear power plants. To avoid an explosion, the building air is freed of hydrogen by continuous circulation. For 3,5 hours this circulation only worked in normal operation, both reserve air lines were not operational due to defects or maintenance work. (Source: ASN)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage_La_Hague

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/La_Hague_(Frankreich)

Reprocessing plants turn a few tons of nuclear waste into many tons of nuclear waste:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VqqHyqSycEU&list=PLJI6AtdHGth3FZbWsyyMMoIw-mT1Psuc5

There are nuclear factories like this around the world:

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Wiederaufarbeitung#Standorte_f.C3.BCr_Wiederaufarbeitung

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February - Paluel, FRA INES category 1 - 3

Incorrect dispositions of insulation fittings were found in one of the four blocks in February, which had existed for more than five months. "This questioned the tightness of the containment," writes the ASN, "during the period in question, had an accident happened". A core melt could have resulted in releases.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Paluel

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Paluel_(Frankreich)

***


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2007

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December - Vandellos 2, ESP INES category 1 - 3

After the eight Spanish NPP units had recorded 14 INES incidents in just three consecutive months, another incident occurred in Vandellos in December. During a test with the reactor running, some shutdown rods unexpectedly collapsed into the core. According to the supervisory authority CSN, this led to a pressure drop in the reactor circuit, and thus to the triggering of the emergency cooling. The pressure build-up that followed led to the activation of the reactor safety valves and the leakage of slightly contaminated cooling water into the containment sump. An internal emergency pre-alarm was triggered.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Vandellòs

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Vandell%C3%B3s_(Spanien) 

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21th of August - Beznau 1, CHE INES category 1 - 3

On August 21, Block 2 was undergoing annual revision. The common reserve grid feed was switched off for maintenance work. To compensate, the emergency diesel generator of Block 1, which is running at full load, was switched on while idling. After the reserve network was restored, it was noticed that this diesel would not have fulfilled its emergency power function due to a malfunction. According to the HSK authority, there would theoretically have been a cross connection to the emergency diesel of the shutdown unit 2, but this diesel was also in maintenance. If there had been a flood like only twelve days before, the hydropower plant would not have been available with enough emergency power either. With an additional interruption of the main network, KKB 1 would only have two diesel generators left to prevent the core meltdown, each of them with only 50% of the necessary emergency power output. These or the emergency cooling pumps connected to them could possibly fail relatively quickly after being switched on due to a malfunction.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Beznau

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Beznau_(Schweiz)

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July - Lower Weser, ENG INES category 1

According to an E.ON report from July, one of four strings of the emergency and after-cooling system was "only available to a limited extent" during an unspecified time. In addition, repair work was periodically carried out on a second line. The remaining two strings (2 x 50%) would have provided sufficient cooling capacity for the limiting incident if required.

The BMU then added and criticized this fact: The operator had known about the fault in the relevant line for over a year, but had not been remedied. (INES level 1)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Unterweser

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Unterweser_(Niedersachsen) 

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June 28 - Brunsbuettel, ENG INES category 0

During maintenance work in the substation outside the power plant site by E.ON, a short circuit occurred when a newly installed converter was switched on, for a reason that has not yet been clarified. As a result, the NPP was disconnected from the grid on June 28, 2007 and shut down using an automatic emergency shutdown. According to TÜV Nord, the shutdown did not go smoothly. A small smoldering fire developed in a turbine due to the escaping oil. In addition, cracks would have formed on the cover plates.

When the reactor was restarted, incorrect operation by the staff led to two shut-offs in the reactor water purification system on July 1st. When introducing water from the reactor into the condensation chamber, a limit value has been exceeded. This limit value is intended to indicate a broken pipe in the system and then direct the system to shut-off, but there was no broken pipe.

Despite an express request from the reactor supervision on July 2nd to the deputy works manager, he initially denied this reportable event, it was only officially reported on July 6th at noon. (INES level 0)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Brunsbüttel

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Brunsb%C3%BCttel_(Schleswig-Holstein) 

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June 28 - Crumbs, ENG INES category 0

On June 28, 2007, a fire began on a transformer on the site of the NPP, which could be extinguished within a few hours. Transformer oil is said to have ignited due to a short circuit for an unexplained cause. According to the authorities, there was no danger to the nuclear area of ​​the NPP. There were no injuries. The nuclear reactor was shut down by means of an emergency shutdown.

The fire brigade was on site with around 80 emergency services to take action against the fire. In the opinion of the Kiel Ministry of Social Affairs, which is responsible for nuclear supervision, the events in both Krümmel and Brunsbüttel are "definitely notifiable". A spokesman for the operator of the Krümmel NPP, Vattenfall Europe, initially denied this for his power plant, as the event took place outside the reactor. The responsible ministry later admitted that the reactor was also affected secondarily. A too rapid pressure reduction of the reactor due to human error - the reactor operator misunderstood an instruction of his superior and opened two safety and relief valves by hand - and "unplanned failure of one of several reactor feed water pumps" led to a "rapid pressure and level drop in the reactor pressure vessel" from 65 to 20 bar. "There was still enough water over the fuel rods at all times," said a ministry spokesman. The drop in water level and pressure could be compensated for by automatically connecting a further safety system. Vattenfall confirmed the events, but stated that the ministry had been informed of the anomalies "immediately after the fire and the emergency shutdown". The emergency shutdown also led to problems with the power plant's own power supply and with data backup. Furthermore, smoke gases from the fire got through the ventilation system into the control room, so that the reactor driver could only continue his work with a respirator after opening the valves as a precaution.

Because of this series of breakdowns, the nuclear supervisory authority of the Federal Environment Ministry intervened. On July 13, 2007, there were searches by the police because Vattenfall had repeatedly refused to question the reactor driver. A search warrant was issued after a report by the taz that there were allegedly injured people in the control room.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Krümmel

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Kr%C3%BCmmel_(Schleswig-Holstein) 

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INES category 1 - 3

June - Cattenom, FRA

The plant on the border with Saarland released zinc into the Moselle in June in a concentration that was above the permitted limit. The annual limit has not been exceeded, writes EDF; it remains unclear whether it was normal zinc (heavy metal) or the radioactive isotope.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Cattenom

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Cattenom_(Frankreich)

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07th of May - Philippsburg, ENG INES category 1

On May 7, 2007, the containment was not properly closed after an overhaul "because the limit switch was not switched exactly". A valve was open on both sides of the security lock (INES level 1).

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Philippsburg

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Philippsburg_(Baden-W%C3%BCrttemberg)

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Leibstadt, CHE INES category 1 - 3

When the automatic pressure relief system (DAS) was accidentally triggered during a test in normal operation, some of the pressure relief valves in the reactor system opened. The water had to be replenished with the emergency cooling (sources: IAEO, HSK)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Leibstadt

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Leibstadt_(Schweiz) 

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April - Penly 2, FR INES category 1 - 3

When the block was restarted after the overhaul in April, after two days of testing, it was noticed that all emergency cooling pumps would have been unavailable during the two days if required (source: ASN)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Penly

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Penly_(Frankreich) 

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Dampierre, FRA INES category 1

Failure of the external network including the reserve network as well as an emergency diesel generator with 100% supply capacity. The factory is about 80 km from Paris. The reactor was cooled down with the only remaining diesel (100%). Nevertheless, the French regulatory authority ASN only classified the incident with INES 1. Reason: The redundancy reserves of the self-steam-driven auxiliary turbine (ready for immediate use) and the gas turbine (whose synchronization could take hours) were still available (sources: ASN, IRSN)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Dampierre

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Dampierre_(Frankreich) 

***


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2006

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09th October - P'unggye-ri, North Korea's first atomic bomb test

The mushroom cloud stands for atomic or hydrogen bombs, also in the context of testsNuclear weapons proving groundUnderground, 0,55 kilotons (kT) - According to North Korean information, the test was successfully carried out on October 9, 2006. Numerous governments around the world sharply criticized the bomb test; even China, allied with North Korea, faced consequences ...

 

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nordkoreanisches_Kernwaffenprogramm

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Punggye-ri_(Testgelände)

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liste_von_Kernwaffentests

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https://www.atomwaffena-z.info/heute/atomwaffenstaaten.html

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25th of July - Forsmark, SWE INES category 1 - 3

On July 25, 2006, the Forsmark-1 reactor was automatically disconnected from the power supply after a short circuit in the substation through which the nuclear power plant transfers its electricity to the general grid. This led to a load shedding of the generator and the heat produced in the reactor could no longer be converted into electrical power. The reactor was shut down via an emergency shutdown. The electricity for the control of the NPP and the feed pumps, which have to dissipate the decay heat, failed. It had to be provided by diesel emergency power generators as a replacement. However, two of the four generators could not feed into the emergency power grid because they remained electrically connected to the 500 V line, which had failed. In addition, the power supply for some of the measuring devices in the control room failed. After 23 minutes, the other two diesel generators could be switched on manually. This connection made it possible to raise the water level in the reactor back to normal. According to the Swedish radiation protection authority SKI, an acute core meltdown was not to be expected at any time of the incident, but it would have been a very serious incident.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Forsmark

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Forsmark_(Schweden) 

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11. March - IRE Fleurus, BEL INES category 4

In an irradiation facility for the manufacture of radiopharmaceutical products at the Institut national des radio-éléments (IRE), a hydraulic failure caused a cobalt source to be lifted out of a radiation-shielding water basin, although no irradiation process took place and the door to the room was open. Due to the alarm being triggered, an employee entered the room. During the stay of only 20 seconds, he received a radiation dose of around 4,6 Sievert, which can be life-threatening in the medium term (INES level 4). (Accidents in purely medical facilities are usually not classified in INES, but the IRE is a nuclear facility).

https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Institut_national_des_radioéléments

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March 06 - NFS, Erwin, Tennessee, USA INES category 2

Nuclear fuel services plant - In March 2006, 35 liters of uranium solution ran out of a leaky pipe and spread across a hallway without collecting enough.

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_Fuel_Services 

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01. March - Kozloduy 5, BGR INES category 2

During the shutdown of the 5th block on March 1st after a main coolant pump failure, a third of all controls were stuck in the up position. An emergency boration had to be carried out to shut down the reactor. The operator originally classified the incident as INES 0, but the regulatory authority corrected it to INES level 2 ...

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Kosloduj

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Kosloduj_(Bulgarien) 

***


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2005

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June 29 - Forsmark, SWE INES category 1 - 3

On June 29, 2005, radioactive water from the interim storage facility for low and medium-level radioactive waste in the Swedish Forsmark NPP entered the Baltic Sea. Ten times the normal level of radioactive cesium was measured in the waters near the power station. According to the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute SSI, however, this is still within the permissible limits. Corroded tin containers with radioactive waste were probably to blame for the leak.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Forsmark

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Forsmark_(Schweden)

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April 19 - Sellafield, GBRINES category 3

After the serious accident of 1957 and the accident of 1973, there was another incident in Sellafield in 2005 (INES level 3). After more than 7 months, a leak was discovered in the reprocessing plant, through which approx. 83.000 liters of a radioactive liquid consisting of nitric acid, uranium and plutonium leaked. The affected hall was massively contaminated, so that remote-controlled machines had to dispose of the liquid.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sellafield

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Sellafield_(ehemals_Windscale),_Gro%C3%9Fbritannien_1957

Reprocessing plants turn a few tons of nuclear waste into many tons of nuclear waste.

There are nuclear factories like this around the world:

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Wiederaufarbeitung#Standorte_f.C3.BCr_Wiederaufarbeitung

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28. March - Leibstadt, CHE INES category 1 - 3

On March 28, 2005, the Leibstadt NPP came to a standstill for five months. The reason for this was damage to the generator; the repair work on the generator was not the responsibility of the HSK (nuclear supervisory authority), as the nuclear part of the nuclear power plant was not affected.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Leibstadt

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Leibstadt_(Schweiz)

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All nuclear vehicles in France INES category 2

The ASN supervisory authority announced that - in the event of a leak in the reactor circuit - if the line suction strainers of the emergency cooling in the containment sump (with waste such as insulating material or rags) clogged, "the coolability of the core is not guaranteed". INES classification: 2. Improvement measures have been announced. The cleanliness is the smaller problem; the aforementioned insulating material only comes off due to a leak that has occurred, due to the pressure forces of the exiting water jet.

***


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2004

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Vandellos 2, ESP INES category 2

The supervisory authority CSN determined that the operator of this plant had kept a line corrosion from it for years, which could have called the functionality of the component cooling into question. If the two lines had failed at about the same time (and not just one, as happened), the reactor would hardly have been able to be cooled down (INES stage 2)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Vandellòs

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Vandell%C3%B3s_(Spanien)

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November 04 - Balakovo, RUS INES category 1 - 3

An incident occurred in Balakovo on November 4th. The reactor was shut down. According to the operator Rosenergoatom, no radioactivity escaped.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Balakowo

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Balakovo_(Russland) 

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09th of August - mihama, JPN INES category 1

Steam explosion at Mihama Nuclear Power Plant killed 5 workers and injured dozens.

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Mihama

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Mihama_(Japan) 

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27th of July - Neckarwestheim, ENG INES category 1

At the Neckarwestheim nuclear power plant, there was an incident caused by human error in which water from Block II contaminated with two megabecquerels got into the Neckar, despite countermeasures taken immediately. For the first time in Germany, the incident resulted in the operating company of a nuclear power plant (EnBW) having to pay a fine (€ 25.000). One operations manager was fired because he had been critical. (INES level 1)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Neckarwestheim

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Neckarwestheim_II_(Baden-W%C3%BCrttemberg) 

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February 08th - Biblis, ENG INES category 0

A malfunction occurred at the Biblis NPP in which at least five of the power supply systems failed one after the other. During a storm, two high-voltage lines collided near the NPP and caused a short circuit. As a result, one main grid connection in the power plant failed, and shortly afterwards the second. The reserve connection did not work either. The emergency power supply of block A and the internal supply of block B then also failed. There was therefore a risk that the security systems could no longer be supplied with energy. As a result of these events, the reactor was automatically shut down for safety reasons. The properly working emergency diesel generators prevented worse. In the past, some of these four emergency power generators were not available several times during regularly recurring inspections, but one is sufficient to ensure that reactor safety is maintained. (INES level 0)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Biblis

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Biblis_(Hessen) 

***


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2003

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November 19 - The Hague, FRA INES category 2

Worker was contaminated by plutonium during a dust remova operation ...

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage_La_Hague

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/La_Hague_(Frankreich)

Reprocessing plants turn a few tons of nuclear waste into many tons of nuclear waste:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VqqHyqSycEU&list=PLJI6AtdHGth3FZbWsyyMMoIw-mT1Psuc5

There are nuclear factories like this around the world:

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Wiederaufarbeitung#Standorte_f.C3.BCr_Wiederaufarbeitung

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April 10 - Paks, HUN INES category 3

When cleaning fuel rods in Unit 2 of the Paks NPP, their casing was damaged. Radioactive gas escaped, which caused a "serious accident" (INES level 3). Nobody was injured in this accident. However, the measuring probes in the area registered noble gas pollution above the limit values.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Paks

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Paks_(Ungarn) 

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01. March - Kozloduy 3, BGR INES category 1 - 3

In full load operation, a primary circuit leak suddenly occurred at a weld seam. The emergency cooling started working. In contrast to the more powerful Units 1 and 4 and all western pressurized water reactors, units 5 to 6, which have now been shut down, were able to shut off individual segments of the primary circuit with valves. A shut-off was made so that the loss of water could be stopped after a relatively short time.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Kosloduj

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Kosloduj_(Bulgarien)

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2002

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November 22 - Tihange, BEL INES category 2

Although the reactor was shut down at this time and was no longer critical, the reactor was still producing heat due to the decay heat, which, as in power mode, is dissipated by circulating the coolant in the primary circuit. As a result of a test, a safety valve in the pressure regulator was opened by mistake, as a result of which the pressure in the primary circuit fell from 155 bar to 85 bar in a very short time. The high pressure in the primary circuit during operation means that the water does not boil, even at high temperatures, but remains in a liquid state. However, if the pressure drops, the boiling temperature of the water drops and it changes to the gaseous state. Then the decay heat of the fuel assemblies can no longer be transported away and there is a risk of a core meltdown. In this case, however, due to the rapid drop in pressure, several safety systems were activated that fed water into the reactor and thus further cooled the fuel assemblies. The incorrectly opened pressure relief valve was only closed again after three minutes due to communication problems. Incident (INES level 2).

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Tihange

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Tihange_(Belgien)

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08. March - Davis Besse, Ohio, United States INES category 3

In March 2002, during a delayed inspection, it was found that boric acid had escaped from the reactor near a control rod leadthrough on the cover of the reactor pressure vessel. The boric acid is used to control the reactor and is added to the coolant. However, the acid reacts very aggressively to heavy metals. As a result, there was severe corrosion on the reactor lid, so that only a few millimeters thin layer of the inner lining of the lid remained. Experts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory then calculated that, in the worst case, it would have taken another five months for a large leak to form in the reactor lid. The nuclear experts of the NGO Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) combined this scenario with the problems that had been discovered a few years ago in connection with clogging of the bog sieves of some nuclear power plants.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Davis_Besse#St%C3%B6rf%C3%A4lle

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Davis-Besse_(USA)

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January 21 - Center de stockage de la Manche, FRA INES category 1

Control systems and safety valves failed after improper installation of condensers and forced a two month shutdown.

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centre_de_la_Manche

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Frankreich#Atomm.C3.BCll.2C_Wiederaufarbeitung_und_Endlager

***


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2001

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August - Philippsburg, ENG INES category 2

At the Philippsburg nuclear power plant, when starting up block 2, the operating team overlooked the fact that the emergency cooling system did not meet the requirements of the operating manual. The emergency cooling system was sufficient to cool the cold and non-critical reactor. After restarting the reactor, the emergency cooling system was upgraded to the extent required by the limit values. However, the incident mentioned below did occur. The coolant that is buffered in the flood tanks (emergency cooling system) of the NPP fell below the permissible boron concentration. Three of the four existing containers were affected. Due to these events, the power plant manager and two board members of the operator EnBW lost their posts. (INES level 2)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Philippsburg

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Philippsburg_(Baden-W%C3%BCrttemberg)

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December 14 - Brunsbuettel, ENG

Serious incident at the Brunsbüttel NPP. As it became known only a few months later, a hydrogen explosion had occurred in the immediate vicinity of the reactor pressure vessel. The supply line for cooling the reactor cover with a diameter of 100 mm was torn over a length of 2 to 3 meters. There was a risk that splinters could damage the containment by passing the splinterguard. The operator HEW tried to cover up the incident as far as possible. For example, it was only reported to the responsible ministry as "spontaneous seal leakage". Only after two months did the supervisory authorities manage to inspect the “leak” while the reactor was shut down, and the extent of the incident was discovered, despite a violent dispute with the operator. If the reactor had been shut down according to regulations immediately after the explosion, the operator would have had to buy additional electricity for several million euros at the beginning of winter.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Brunsbüttel

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Brunsb%C3%BCttel_(Schleswig-Holstein)

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16 November - HFR hats, NLD

According to the report of the former IE director Frans Saris, on November 16, 2001 there was an officially concealed incident (Station Blackout = total power failure) at the High Flux Reactor, in which one was only just about to meltdown. Due to a failure of the external power supply, the pumps that are used to cool the reactor were suddenly without power. After that, the emergency power supply also failed, and due to the inadequate power supply, the operators had great difficulty opening a valve that is used for passive emergency cooling ...

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Institut_für_Energie

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http://de.atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.com/wiki/Niederlande

***


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2000

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05th of July - Grafenrheinfeld, ENG INES category 0

In the Grafenrheinfeld nuclear power plant, the engine of the main coolant pump, which is located in the immediate vicinity of the reactor pressure vessel, caught fire. (INES level 0)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Grafenrheinfeld

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Grafenrheinfeld_(Bayern) 

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June 26 - Grafenrheinfeld, ENG INES category 1

On June 26, 2000, an INES stage 1 incident occurred at the Grafenrheinfeld nuclear power plant. Technical defects were found in five of eight control valves that had been installed the year before.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Grafenrheinfeld

-

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Grafenrheinfeld_(Bayern) 

***


Radioactive events of the years:
2019-2010 2009-2000 1999-1990 1989-1980
1979-1970 1969-1960 1959-1950 1949-1940

***


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1999

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December 27 - Blaaiis, FRA

INES category 2

In the four-block Blayais nuclear power plant not far from Bordeaux on the Atlantic, storm Lothar flooded the area and caused a partial failure of the external power supply. Two blocks had to be cooled down using the emergency diesel generator sets. In addition, some of the emergency cooling and component cooling pumps were flooded and would not have been operational if required (sources: EDF, ASN) INES level 2

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Blayais

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Blayais_(Frankreich)

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INES category 4September 30 - Tokaimura, JPN

In a fuel element factory in Tokaimura, Japan, workers filled a preparation tank with 16,6 kg of uranium mixture (instead of the required 2,3 kg). An uncontrolled chain reaction set in and radiation escaped. The number of people who received increased doses of radiation is given as 35 to 63. Three workers were exposed to particularly high levels of radioactivity of up to 17 Sieverts. Around 300.000 residents were asked not to leave their homes. This accident is officially rated INES 4, but some scientists have rated INES 5. The worker on the 17 Sievert dose died a few months after the accident despite having received a bone marrow transplant ...

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuklearunfall_von_T%C5%8Dkaimura_1999

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http://de.atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.com/wiki/Tokaimura,_Japan_1999

Reprocessing plants turn a few tons of nuclear waste into many tons of nuclear waste:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VqqHyqSycEU&list=PLJI6AtdHGth3FZbWsyyMMoIw-mT1Psuc5

There are nuclear factories like this around the world:

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Wiederaufarbeitung#Standorte_f.C3.BCr_Wiederaufarbeitung

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June 18 - Shika, Ishikawa, JPNINES category 2

Control rod malfunction set off uncontrolled nuclear reaction at Shika Nuclear Power Station Unit-1.

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

-

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Shika

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Shika_(Japan) 

***


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1998

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May 28th and 30th - Ras Koh, Pakistan detonates 6 atomic bombs underground

The mushroom cloud stands for atomic or hydrogen bombs, also in the context of testsNuclear weapons proving groundAccording to its own statements, Pakistan successfully carried out six nuclear tests on May 28 and 30, 1998 (as a reaction to the Indian tests on May 11.05.1998, XNUMX). However, based on the seismic signals, experts assume that only two tests were actually carried out ...

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streitkr%C3%A4fte_Pakistans

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liste_von_Kernwaffentests

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https://www.atomwaffena-z.info/heute/atomwaffenstaaten/pakistan.html

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May 11-13 - Pokhran, India detonates 6 atomic bombs underground

The mushroom cloud stands for atomic or hydrogen bombs, also in the context of testsNuclear weapons proving groundThe first nuclear charge had an explosive force of 43 kilotons of TNT equivalents and was detonated for test purposes on May 11, 1998 at the army site near Pokhran (Rajasthan) in the Thar desert; 5 further tests were carried out in the following 2 days.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indisches_Atomprogramm

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liste_von_Kernwaffentests

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https://www.atomwaffena-z.info/heute/atomwaffenstaaten/indien.html

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Target or Tihange, BELINES category 1 - 3

Belgium is one of the few Western European countries that, like the USA, examines its accidents with the help of so-called precursor analyzes for risk relevance. The supervisory authority AVN also uses the probability calculation. The most serious incident since 1997 was a complete short-term failure of the component cooling in an unspecified block of the Doel or Tihange NPP locations. Many of the operating and safety systems depend on cooling from other systems (the ones that have failed) in order to function, which illustrates the scope of this incident.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Doel

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Doel_(Belgien)

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Tihange

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Tihange_(Belgien)

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Bilibino in Siberia, RUSINES category 2

An INES 2 incident occurred in 1998 at the Bilibino nuclear power plant.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Bilibino

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Bilibino_(Russland)

***


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1997

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November 03 - Tokaimura, JPNINES category 3

At least 37 workers were exposed to elevated levels of radiation after a small explosion in the plant. A week after high levels of Calcium were detected 25 miles south-west of the plant ...

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

-

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuklearunfall_von_T%C5%8Dkaimura_1999

-

http://de.atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.com/wiki/Tokaimura,_Japan_1999

Reprocessing plants turn a few tons of nuclear waste into many tons of nuclear waste:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VqqHyqSycEU&list=PLJI6AtdHGth3FZbWsyyMMoIw-mT1Psuc5

There are nuclear factories like this around the world:

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Wiederaufarbeitung#Standorte_f.C3.BCr_Wiederaufarbeitung

***


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1996

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Oskarshamn 1, SWE INES category 1 - 3

In this system, the core jacket had to be replaced due to a tear in its circumferential seam of almost the circumference. The core jacket is part of the internals of the reactor vessel. Its rupture could make it impossible to shut down the reactor quickly. (Sources: IAEA, SKI)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Oskarshamn

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Oskarshamn_(Schweden) 

***


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1995

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Trillo, ESP INES category 1 - 3

During inspections, it was found that half of the strands of the sump recirculation of the emergency cooling were blocked with foreign objects. According to the authority CSN, it was a matter of incorrect dispositions in the construction phase eight years ago, with which the supplier Siemens-KWU was also responsible (source: NRC-NUREG 0933)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Trillo

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Trillo_(Spanien)

***


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1994

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March - Biblis A, GER

In March 1994, the engine of a main coolant pump caught fire in Biblis A inside the containment because a short circuit had occurred due to a chisel forgotten in the engine during maintenance work....

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Biblis

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Biblis_(Hessen)

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Dukovany, CZE INES category 1 - 3

: An electrician's mistake during network maintenance led to the decoupling of all four reactor blocks from the network. Two of the blocks reached self-consumption production after the load had been shed, the other two missed this procedure and had to be supplied by their emergency diesel generators after an emergency shutdown. One of the diesels did not start automatically and had to be started manually on site. There were also a large number of minor malfunctions (source: SKI Report IRS)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Dukovany

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Dukovany_(Tschechien)

***


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1993

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April 06 - Tomsk 7, Seversk, RUS INES category 4

In the reprocessing facility of the Tomsk nuclear facility (mainly used for the production of weapons-grade plutonium), large amounts of short-lived radioactive substances were released as a result of an accident. As a result, one hundred square kilometers in the Seversk region (also known as Tomsk-7) were contaminated. (INES level 2-4)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kerntechnische_Anlage_Tomsk

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Sewersk/Tomsk-7,_ehemalige_Sowjetunion_1993

***


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1992

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Mol atomic factory in Dessel, BEL INES category 1 - 3

An accident occurred in the largest European factory for the production of MOX fuel elements (uranium-plutonium mixed oxide): a fuel rod broke and MOX dust was released. This resulted in at least one employee inhaling plutonium. Plutonium is radiotoxic (source: Öko-Institut).

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Studienzentrum_f%C3%BCr_Kernenergie

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Mol_(Belgien)

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June 28 - Barseback-2, SWE INES category 2

A leaking pilot valve in the boiling water reactor in Barseback initiated automatically safety functions like reactor scram, high-pressure safety injection, core spray and containment spray systems. The steam jet from an open safety valve was impinging on thermally insulated equipment. Insulating material was washed into the suppression pool and affected the emergency core cooling system, which is essential for heat removal in case of a leak in the reactor coolant. Similar incidents occurred in several countries and the problem turned out to apply to many, if not most, of the light water reactors in the world.

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Barseb%C3%A4ck

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Barseb%C3%A4ck_(Schweden)

***


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1991

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10th of July - Bilibino, RUSINES category 3

There was a leak as a result of the transfer of liquid high-level radioactive waste to a warehouse. Not only the Akw building and the means of transport were contaminated, but also the premises of the head office.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Bilibino

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Bilibino_(Russland)

***


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1990

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Leibstadt, CHE INES category 2

When starting up this reactor - located on the German border - it was noticed after three hours at an output of 20% that the emergency shutdown would not work if requested. The reactor was slowly shut down with the control rod motors. The authority HSK classified the incident with INES level 2.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Leibstadt

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Leibstadt_(Schweiz)

***


Radioactive events of the years:
2019-2010 2009-2000 1999-1990 1989-1980
1979-1970 1969-1960 1959-1950 1949-1940

***


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1989

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Vandellòs-1, ESP INES category 3

The security systems were badly affected by a fire in Akw Vandellòs. Vandellòs 1 was finally shut down following a political decision by the Spanish government. (INES level 3)

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Vandellos

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Vandell%C3%B3s_(Spanien) 

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Krsko, SVN INES category 1 - 3

As a correct reaction to an operational malfunction, a pressure relief valve in the reactor circuit opened as a result of pressure. After the pressure transient had dissipated, it unexpectedly got stuck in the open position (as it did before the meltdown accident in 1979 in Three Mile Island). Due to the associated loss of cooling water, the emergency cooling switched on automatically (in contrast to TMI, it was not switched off again by mistake by the staff). After approx. 15 minutes the valve still closed and the emergency cooling had refilled the reactor circuit to some extent. Slightly radioactive water had to be removed from the containment sump after the accident by dispensing it into the neighboring river (source: SKI-Report IRS)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Kr%C5%A1ko

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Kr%C5%A1ko_(Slowenien)

***


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1988

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12th of May - Civaux-1, FRA INES category 2

The Civaux-1 pressurized water reactor was shut down for five days, when, during startup tests, a 25 cm diameter pipe of the main residual heat removal system cracked open and a large leak (30,000 liters per hour) occurred in the primary cooling circuit . The reactor core needs to be cooled permanently, even when it is shut down, in order to evacuate the significant amount of residual heat of the fuel. It took nine hours to isolate the leak and reach a stable situation. An 18 cm long crack on a weld was identified and 300 m3 of primary coolant had leaked into the reactor building. The unit had been operating for only six months at 50% power level maximum prior to the event. The operator, EDF, suggested rating this event at level 1 on the INES scale, but the safety authorities decided on level 2.

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Civaux 

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Civaux_(Frankreich) 

***


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1987

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December 16 - Biblis A, GER INES category 1

When the reactor started up, a valve that had to shut off a connection line to the reactor circuit, which is under 150 times atmospheric pressure, jammed and remained open. Only after 15 hours did the operating staff take the flashing warning lamp seriously; the control logic of the lamp was believed to be defective. The staff did not shut down the reactor immediately, but opened a second, redundant safety valve to flush the jammed valve through and thus close it. The valve did not close and 107 liters of radioactive cooling water ran into the annulus. The safety valve closed seconds later. The incident came to the public only after a year through an article in an American journal (Nucleonic Weeks), but was reported by the operator to the authorities in good time, which in turn did not publish a press release. The incident was later classified as level 1 (incident) on the INES scale. After the incident, the manufacturers took remedial action: With the retrofitting of a pressure relief valve between the primary and secondary shut-off (i.e. the said valves) of these connection lines, a failure of the secondary shut-off and thus a bypass is prevented after the initial shut-off by means of pressure relief in the containment.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Biblis

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Biblis_(Hessen)

***


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1986

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Muhleberg, CHE INES category 1 - 3

In the Chernobyl year, an independent physics teacher took dose measurements in the vicinity of the Mühleberg nuclear power plant. To his amazement, the readings were unusually high one day. The operator had to admit filter damage, which led to releases just below the limit value. Allegedly, neither the operator nor the HSK supervisory authority registered this release. The values ​​are still slightly higher today ...

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Mühleberg

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/M%C3%BChleberg_(Schweiz)

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21th of May - The Hague, FRAINES category 3

At the French reprocessing plant in La Hague, 5 workers were exposed to radiation in an accident. (INES level 2-3)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage_La_Hague

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/La_Hague_(Frankreich)

Reprocessing plants turn a few tons of nuclear waste into many tons of nuclear waste:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VqqHyqSycEU&list=PLJI6AtdHGth3FZbWsyyMMoIw-mT1Psuc5

There are nuclear factories like this around the world:

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Wiederaufarbeitung#Standorte_f.C3.BCr_Wiederaufarbeitung

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04 - 05 May - THTR 300, ENGINES category 0

Radioactive aerosols leaked from the THTR-300 nuclear power plant in Hamm-Uentrop. Broken spherical fuel elements clogged the pipes of the charging system and attempts were made to blow these pipes free again with high gas pressure. The existing measuring devices were switched off at the time of the incident, so nothing is known about the exact amounts. Further attempts resulted in all of the jammed balls breaking and parts of the system being bent. The reactor was temporarily shut down. On September 1, 1989, it was decided to decommission the THTR-300 due to disagreements about further funding. (INES level 0)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_THTR-300#Probleme_und_St.C3.B6rf.C3.A4lle

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Hamm-Uentrop_(Nordrhein-Westfalen)

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See: The accident

-

As well as the contribution 'Sparkling eyes' in the mirror

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April 26 - Chernobyl, USSR INES category 7

In a super-GAU (INES level 7) in Block 4 of the Chernobyl Akw in Ukraine, there was a meltdown and, as a result, explosions. Large amounts of radioactivity were released through exposure and fire of the reactor core, the immediate area was heavily contaminated; in addition, there were numerous direct radiation victims among the auxiliary workers. The worst case scenario was proven by radioactivity measurements and fallout in Sweden and other European countries. A large restricted area was established and the area evacuated. The number of people harmed varies considerably depending on the study. The fact that the accident has resulted in unexpectedly few victims so far (according to the IAEA) is partly due to the fact that the violent graphite fire carried large parts of the radioactivity directly and up into the atmosphere and that the wind was blowing largely in the direction of less populated regions before the evacuation of larger cities such as Prypiat .

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuklearkatastrophe_von_Tschernobyl

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Tschernobyl_(Ukraine)

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January 06 - Cimarron Fuel Fabrication Site, Oklahoma, United StatesINES category 4

At the Kerr-McGee reprocessing facility in Gore, Oklahoma, a cylinder of nuclear material broke after being heated improperly. One worker died and 100 had to be hospitalized. (INES level 2-4)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kerr-McGee

Reprocessing plants turn a few tons of nuclear waste into many tons of nuclear waste:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VqqHyqSycEU&list=PLJI6AtdHGth3FZbWsyyMMoIw-mT1Psuc5

There are nuclear factories like this around the world:

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Wiederaufarbeitung#Standorte_f.C3.BCr_Wiederaufarbeitung

***


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1985

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August - K-431 nuclear submarine, Vladivostok, USSRINES category 5

In the Chazhma Bay near Vladivostok, a serious accident occurred while the fuel element was being replaced on the nuclear-powered submarine K-314. When the reactor lid was replaced, improper handling led to a spontaneous chain reaction. The cooling water evaporated suddenly and the reactor core was thrown onto the pier by the explosion. 29 people received high doses of radiation, another 10 people died from a fatal dose of neutrons. The radioactive cloud did not reach Vladivostok, 55 kilometers away, but further victims of this accident (long-term cancer) cannot be ruled out in closer places. (INES level 5)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Echo-Klasse#K-31

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June 09 - Davis Besse, Ohio, United States INES category 4

On June 9, 1985, when the cooling system of the 'Kkw Davis Besse 1' was put into operation, a pump malfunctioned because it was operating incorrectly by an operator. To counteract this, the delivery rate was reduced. Shortly afterwards there was overpressure on another pump. The operators switched off the pump. However, this stopped the flow of coolant from circulating. To counteract this, an operator activated the emergency feed water pumps. First the event was classified as "exceptional"; Later the incident was examined more closely and it was found that it almost came to a core meltdown (melting of the reactor core). According to estimates by the IAEA, the incident on the INES was to be rated at least as level 4, ie "accident".

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Davis_Besse#St%C3%B6rf%C3%A4lle

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Davis-Besse_(USA)

***


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1984

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17th of July - Sellafield, GBR

INES category 3

A solvent fire in Building B241 effluent treatment plant sludge tank was caused by hot metal from burning operations ...

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sellafield

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Sellafield_(ehemals_Windscale),_Gro%C3%9Fbritannien_1957

Reprocessing plants turn a few tons of nuclear waste into many tons of nuclear waste:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VqqHyqSycEU&list=PLJI6AtdHGth3FZbWsyyMMoIw-mT1Psuc5

There are nuclear factories like this around the world:

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Wiederaufarbeitung#Standorte_f.C3.BCr_Wiederaufarbeitung

***


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1983

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Target 1 and 2, BELINES category 1 - 3

After the failure of the 380 kV network and strong voltage fluctuations in the reserve network, an emergency power situation occurred in the two oldest Doel blocks. Four diesel generators started, but could not guarantee the necessary supply for cold start due to errors. As a last reserve, an electricity-independent cooling system, driven by the steam of the decay heat, came into action in both reactor blocks until the power supply was restored after about an hour (source: SKI Report IRS)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Doel

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Doel_(Belgien)

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Buenos Aires, ARG INES category 4

By neglecting safety regulations, an operator died while modifying the reactor core. He was only a few meters away and received a lethal radiation dose of around 20 Gy (INES level 4).

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

-

SPIEGEL report on hidden nuclear power plant incidents around the world

Humanity has slipped past the catastrophe several times by a hair's breadth. This is revealed by 48 accident reports that were kept secret by the Vienna International Atomic Energy Agency: breakdowns, often of the most bizarre, profane kind from the United States and Argentina to Bulgaria and Pakistan ...

The cold shiver runs down my spine Mirror 17/1987

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Reservoir, ARG

On June 30, 1983, a serious incident occurred in the nuclear power plant (overheating of the cooling circuit), which, however, could be brought under control by employees. In 1986 there was another incident when heavy water came out of the power plant. Both incidents were kept secret by those responsible for a long time, only the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was informed. The operators were obviously able to prevent an INES classification. It was only through research that the media managed to bring the incident to the public.

Up to 2007 there had been a total of ten incidents at Akw Embalse ...

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Embalse

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Embalse_(Argentinien)

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November 01 - Sellafield, GBR

INES category 3

Inadvertent transfer of 59 TBq activity with solvent and crud took place from Building B205 to a sea tank at Building B242 ...

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

-

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sellafield

-

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Sellafield_(ehemals_Windscale),_Gro%C3%9Fbritannien_1957

Reprocessing plants turn a few tons of nuclear waste into many tons of nuclear waste:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VqqHyqSycEU&list=PLJI6AtdHGth3FZbWsyyMMoIw-mT1Psuc5

There are nuclear factories like this around the world:

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Wiederaufarbeitung#Standorte_f.C3.BCr_Wiederaufarbeitung

***


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1982

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September- Chernobyl, USSR INES category 5

In Block 1 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, a fuel channel in the middle of the reactor was destroyed due to mistakes by the staff. A large amount of radioactive substances were distributed over the industrial area of ​​the nuclear power plant and the city of Pripyat. The personnel involved in liquidating the consequences of this accident received high doses of radiation. (INES level 5)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Tschernobyl

-

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Tschernobyl_(Ukraine)

***


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1981

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01th October - Sellafield, GBR

INES category 3

Inadvertent reprocessing of fuel from Oldbury Power Station had only been cooled for 27 days leading to iodine release

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

-

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sellafield

-

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Sellafield_(ehemals_Windscale),_Gro%C3%9Fbritannien_1957

Reprocessing plants turn a few tons of nuclear waste into many tons of nuclear waste:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VqqHyqSycEU&list=PLJI6AtdHGth3FZbWsyyMMoIw-mT1Psuc5

There are nuclear factories like this around the world:

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Wiederaufarbeitung#Standorte_f.C3.BCr_Wiederaufarbeitung

 

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The Hague, FRA INES category 3

In the northern French reprocessing plant for core fuel, the two transformers for the power supply failed, and with it all of the electric pumps that dissipate the post-decay heat from the various fuel storage basins. Since there was no further redundancy, an emergency supply had to be set up temporarily by hand. Because the post-decay heat of the fuel has already partially subsided at this stage (degressive course), there was enough time to do so. The incident was classified as INES 3 (serious incident) ...

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage_La_Hague

-

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/La_Hague_(Frankreich)

Reprocessing plants turn a few tons of nuclear waste into many tons of nuclear waste:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VqqHyqSycEU&list=PLJI6AtdHGth3FZbWsyyMMoIw-mT1Psuc5

There are nuclear factories like this around the world:

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Wiederaufarbeitung#Standorte_f.C3.BCr_Wiederaufarbeitung

 

***


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1980

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Saint-Laurent, FRAINES category 4

The partial melting of a few fuel elements led to contamination of the reactor building (INES level 4). The first two reactors built at St. Laurent were graphite-moderated and gas-cooled. The emergency cooling was therefore not carried out with water, but with air drawn in from the factory environment. The reactor continued to operate for a while after repairs.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Saint-Laurent

-

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Saint-Laurent_(Frankreich)

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September 22 - Sellafield, GBR

INES category 3

Enhanced corrosion in the Building B38 magnox storage silo caused discharges to atmosphere of ?? 35â € “70 GBq ??

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

-

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sellafield

-

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Sellafield_(ehemals_Windscale),_Gro%C3%9Fbritannien_1957

Reprocessing plants turn a few tons of nuclear waste into many tons of nuclear waste:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VqqHyqSycEU&list=PLJI6AtdHGth3FZbWsyyMMoIw-mT1Psuc5

There are nuclear factories like this around the world:

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Wiederaufarbeitung#Standorte_f.C3.BCr_Wiederaufarbeitung

 

***


Radioactive events of the years:
2019-2010 2009-2000 1999-1990 1989-1980
1979-1970 1969-1960 1959-1950 1949-1940

***


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1979

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Target 2, BEL INES category 1 - 3

The breakage of a steam generator heating pipe resulted in a slight release of radioactivity into the environment. The control of this incident requires the correct handling of complicated procedures by the personnel. The four nuclear power plants in Doel are only 8 km from Antwerp (source: NEA-OECD)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Doel

-

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Doel_(Belgien)

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September 11 - Sellafield, GBR

INES category 4

There was a release of plutonium to atmosphere during transfer of low radioactive liquid effluent to Building B242

These data come from the Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

-

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sellafield

-

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Sellafield_(ehemals_Windscale),_Gro%C3%9Fbritannien_1957

Reprocessing plants turn a few tons of nuclear waste into many tons of nuclear waste:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VqqHyqSycEU&list=PLJI6AtdHGth3FZbWsyyMMoIw-mT1Psuc5

There are nuclear factories like this around the world:

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Wiederaufarbeitung#Standorte_f.C3.BCr_Wiederaufarbeitung

 

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16th of July - Sellafield, GBR

INES category 3

A fire of magnox swarf and uranium took place in a remote decanning cave in Building B30

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

-

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sellafield

-

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Sellafield_(ehemals_Windscale),_Gro%C3%9Fbritannien_1957

Reprocessing plants turn a few tons of nuclear waste into many tons of nuclear waste:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VqqHyqSycEU&list=PLJI6AtdHGth3FZbWsyyMMoIw-mT1Psuc5

There are nuclear factories like this around the world:

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Wiederaufarbeitung#Standorte_f.C3.BCr_Wiederaufarbeitung

 

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28. March - Three mile island, USAINES category 5

In a nuclear power plant near Harrisburg, failure of machine parts and measurement signals as well as operating errors by the team led to the failure of the reactor cooling system, which resulted in a partial meltdown (50% of the core) and the release of 90 TBq of radioactive gases. This accident is the worst to date in a commercial reactor in the USA and has been rated INES 5 by the IAEA.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Three_Mile_Island

-

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Harrisburg/Three_Mile_Island_(USA)

***


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1978

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December 31 - Beloyarsk, USSR INES category 4

In the turbine house of Unit 2 of the Belojarsk NPP, a ceiling plate fell on a turbine oil tank and caused a major fire. 8 people suffered high doses of radiation while organizing the reactor emergency cooling. (INES level 3–4)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Belojarsk

-

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Beloyarsk_(Russland) 

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June 18 - Brunsbuettel, ENG

Only two years after commissioning, two tons of radioactive steam leaked into the machine building through a torn off of a blind nozzle and subsequently into the open air through roof flaps. Nevertheless, the reactor continued to run for over two hours. The operating team had manipulated the automatic security system to keep the system connected to the network. The Brunsbüttel nuclear power plant then stood still for more than two years.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Brunsbüttel

-

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Brunsb%C3%BCttel_(Schleswig-Holstein)

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13th of May - AVR Julich, ENG

A water ingress accident in the Jülich experimental reactor, which was only assigned to the lowest category C at the time, led to a high level of contamination of the cooling circuit and the soil and groundwater under the reactor with strontium-90 and tritium. Critics of the pebble bed reactor concept assume that the classification of this event, which is far too favorable from today's point of view, as insignificant from a safety point of view, served to preserve the development chances of pebble bed reactors.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/AVR_(Jülich)

-

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/J%C3%BClich_(Nordrhein-Westfalen)

***


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1977

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September 24 - Davis Besse, Ohio, United States INES category 3

On September 24, 1977, a pressure relief valve in the primary circuit opened, causing steam to escape. The control room staff was unable to bring the situation under control for a long time. There was a risk that the core of the reactor could have been exposed and overheated due to the heavy loss of coolant. Before that happened, the valve could be closed again. A few years later, the incident was assigned to Category 3 on the International Rating Scale for Nuclear Events.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Davis_Besse#St%C3%B6rf%C3%A4lle

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Davis-Besse_(USA)

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Beloyarsk, USSR INES category 5

In an accident, 50% of the fuel channels in Unit 2 of the Belojarsk NPP, a pressure tube reactor similar to the RBMK, melted. The repair took about a year. The staff was exposed to high levels of radiation. (INES level 5)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Belojarsk

-

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Beloyarsk_(Russland)

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February - Jaslovke Bohunice, SVKINES category 4

An accident occurred in the first Slovakian NPP Bohunice A-1, which was equipped with a pressure tube reactor: When loading fresh fuel elements, some of them overheated and the reactor hall was contaminated (INES level 4). The reactor was shut down after the accident.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Bohunice 

-

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Tschechien

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January 13 - Akw gun barriers, ENG

Due to the unclear situation, this incident was not assigned an INES level!

In cold and damp weather, short circuits occurred on two current-carrying high-voltage lines. The resulting quick shutdown led to control errors. After about ten minutes, the radioactive water in the reactor building of Block A was about three meters high and the temperature had risen to around 80 ° C. At first it was said that the reactor would be able to go back into operation in a few weeks. After the incident, the operators assumed that Unit A would be brought back into operation quickly. However, due to the modernization of the control and safety technology required by politics and supervisory authorities, the operators later decided not to recommission Unit A (category A or E) for economic and political reasons.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Gundremmingen

-

'Gar Nix' provides further information

-

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Gundremmingen_A_(Bayern)

***


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1976

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January 05 - Jaslovke Bohunice, CS

(No INES classification)

Leaked carbon dioxide from a reactor coolant system at the Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant fatally suffocated two workers.

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

-

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Bohunice 

-

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Tschechien

***


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1975

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December 07 - Greifswald, GDR INES category 3

When an electrician at the Greifswald NPP wanted to show an apprentice how to bypass electrical circuits, he triggered a short circuit on the primary side of the block transformer in Block 1. The resulting arc caused a cable fire. The fire in the main cable duct destroyed the power supply and the control lines of 5 main coolant pumps (6 are in operation for one block). A core meltdown could have threatened, as reactor 1 could no longer be cooled properly. However, the fire was quickly brought under control by the company fire brigade and the power supply to the pumps was temporarily restored. The case was only made public on television after the fall of the Wall in 1989. Soviet authorities informed the IAEA just a few hours after the incident, which later classified it in INES 3 (precursor to an accident, here a "station blackout" melting scenario).

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Greifswald

-

 

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November 19 - Akw gun barriers, ENG

Due to the unclear situation (?), This incident was not assigned an INES level!

In the Gundremmingen nuclear power plant there is an accident in which two people die (Mirrors). When working on an ancillary system of the primary circuit, 2 locksmiths loosen the mounting of a stuffing box and a radioactive steam-water mixture with a temperature of 280 ° C explodes. The younger of the two, a Master at the age of 34, was hit directly by the beam and died instantly. It was only 15 minutes after the accident that other power plant employees wearing heavy radiation protection suits recovered him. The other was 46 years old and was initially able to escape the confined space despite severe burns. He was taken to the nearby Lauingen hospital for emergency care. He was then taken by helicopter to a burn injury clinic where he died in the early hours of the next day.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Gundremmingen

-

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Gundremmingen_A_(Bayern)

-

'Gar Nix' provides further information

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November 30 - Sosnovy Bor, Leningrad, USSRINES category 5

In 1975 the reactor core in Unit 1 of the Leningrad NPP was partially destroyed. The reactor was shut down. The next day the core was cleaned by pumping through an emergency reserve of nitrogen and blowing it through the exhaust chimney. About 1,5 megacuria (55 PBq) of radioactive substances were released into the environment. (INES level 4–5)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Leningrad

-

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Leningrad_(Russland)

***


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1974

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18th of May - Pokhran, India's first atomic bomb test

The mushroom cloud stands for atomic or hydrogen bombs, also in the context of testsNuclear weapons proving ground

The bomb had an explosive force of around 8 kilotons of TNT equivalents and was detonated for test purposes on May 18, 1974 at a depth of 107 m on the army site near Pokhran (Rajasthan) in the Thar desert.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indisches_Atomprogramm

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Smiling_Buddha

-

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liste_von_Kernwaffentests

-

https://www.atomwaffena-z.info/heute/atomwaffenstaaten/indien.html

-

https://www.atomwaffena-z.info/heute/atomwaffenstaaten.html

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INES category 5February 06th - Sosnovy Bor, Leningrad, USSR

Due to boiling water, a rupture of the heat exchanger in unit 1 occurred. Three people died. Highly radioactive water from the primary circuit along with radioactive filter sludge was released into the environment. (INES Level 4-5)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Leningrad

-

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Leningrad_(Russland)

***


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1973

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September 26 - Sellafield, GBR

INES category 4

In the reprocessing plant, an exothermic reaction occurred in a basin that had been emptied for repairs when it was refilled with water due to hot radionuclides on the basin floor. As a result, part of the facility and 35 workers were radioactively contaminated. Due to the internal contamination and apparently also a certain release, this accident was classified as INES 4.

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

-

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sellafield

-

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Sellafield_(ehemals_Windscale),_Gro%C3%9Fbritannien_1957

Reprocessing plants turn a few tons of nuclear waste into many tons of nuclear waste:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VqqHyqSycEU&list=PLJI6AtdHGth3FZbWsyyMMoIw-mT1Psuc5

There are nuclear factories like this around the world:

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Wiederaufarbeitung#Standorte_f.C3.BCr_Wiederaufarbeitung

***


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1972

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December 06 - Sellafield, GBR

INES category 3

Inadvertent processing of fuel elements from Chapelcross had a high iodine content and release 2.2 TBq

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

-

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sellafield

-

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Sellafield_(ehemals_Windscale),_Gro%C3%9Fbritannien_1957

Reprocessing plants turn a few tons of nuclear waste into many tons of nuclear waste:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VqqHyqSycEU&list=PLJI6AtdHGth3FZbWsyyMMoIw-mT1Psuc5

There are nuclear factories like this around the world:

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Wiederaufarbeitung#Standorte_f.C3.BCr_Wiederaufarbeitung

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1972 - Santa Maria de Garona, ESP INES category 1 - 3

In the early years of its operation, this boiling water reactor regularly recorded significant excesses of the emission limit values ​​that were still less restrictive at the time (source: IAEA)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Santa_María_de_Garoña

-

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Santa_Mar%C3%ADa_de_Garo%C3%B1a_(Spanien)

***


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1971

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19. March - Sellafield, GBR

INES category 3

Sparks from an electric arc ignited radioactive waste in a basement, leading to 0.48 GBq released

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

-

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sellafield

-

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Sellafield_(ehemals_Windscale),_Gro%C3%9Fbritannien_1957

Reprocessing plants turn a few tons of nuclear waste into many tons of nuclear waste:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VqqHyqSycEU&list=PLJI6AtdHGth3FZbWsyyMMoIw-mT1Psuc5

There are nuclear factories like this around the world:

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Wiederaufarbeitung#Standorte_f.C3.BCr_Wiederaufarbeitung

***


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1970

---------------------------------------------------------------------------

November 29 - Sellafield, GBR

INES category 3

An abnormal discharge of about 1.6 GBq Pu took place via the Building B230 stack

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

-

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sellafield

-

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Sellafield_(ehemals_Windscale),_Gro%C3%9Fbritannien_1957

Reprocessing plants turn a few tons of nuclear waste into many tons of nuclear waste:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VqqHyqSycEU&list=PLJI6AtdHGth3FZbWsyyMMoIw-mT1Psuc5

There are nuclear factories like this around the world:

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Wiederaufarbeitung#Standorte_f.C3.BCr_Wiederaufarbeitung

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June 08 - Lawrence Livermore, USAINES category 4

Accidentally released about 650,000 curies of tritium as far as 200 miles away

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

-

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lawrence_Livermore_National_Laboratory 

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10. March - Sellafield, GBR

INES category 3

Abnormal discharge of about 1.8 GBq Pu via the Building B230 stack

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

-

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sellafield

-

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Sellafield_(ehemals_Windscale),_Gro%C3%9Fbritannien_1957

Reprocessing plants turn a few tons of nuclear waste into many tons of nuclear waste:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VqqHyqSycEU&list=PLJI6AtdHGth3FZbWsyyMMoIw-mT1Psuc5

There are nuclear factories like this around the world:

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Wiederaufarbeitung#Standorte_f.C3.BCr_Wiederaufarbeitung

***


Radioactive events of the years:
2019-2010 2009-2000 1999-1990 1989-1980
1979-1970 1969-1960 1959-1950 1949-1940

***


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1969

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17th October - Saint-Laurent, FRA INES category 4

More than 50 kilograms of uranium fuel at the Saint-Laurent Nuclear Power Plant began to melt after cooling systems failed and forced shutdown and repairs.

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

-

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Saint-Laurent

-

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Saint-Laurent_(Frankreich) 

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12th October - Sellafield, GBR

INES category 4

Enhanced discharge from the Building B204 stack of about 1.8 TBq beta radioactivity

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

-

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sellafield

-

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Sellafield_(ehemals_Windscale),_Gro%C3%9Fbritannien_1957

Reprocessing plants turn a few tons of nuclear waste into many tons of nuclear waste:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VqqHyqSycEU&list=PLJI6AtdHGth3FZbWsyyMMoIw-mT1Psuc5

There are nuclear factories like this around the world:

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Wiederaufarbeitung#Standorte_f.C3.BCr_Wiederaufarbeitung

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11th of May - Rocky flats, USAINES category 5

Plutonium spontaneously ignited in a container with 600 t of flammable material. The fire burned 2 tons of the material and released plutonia. By taking soil samples in the vicinity of the facility, it was found that the area was contaminated with plutonium. Since the operators of the plant refused to initiate investigations, the samples were taken as part of an unofficial investigation. (INES level 4–5)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rocky_Flats

-

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/USA

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01th of May - Ågesta, Stockholm, SWE

(No INES classification)

Malfunction of valve caused flooding in Agesta pressurized heavy water nuclear reactor.

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

-

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_%C3%85gesta 

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05. March - Sellafield, GBR

INES category 3

A spillage of 370 MBq Pu in Building B229 laboratory, leads to substantial discharge

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

-

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sellafield

-

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Sellafield_(ehemals_Windscale),_Gro%C3%9Fbritannien_1957

Reprocessing plants turn a few tons of nuclear waste into many tons of nuclear waste:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VqqHyqSycEU&list=PLJI6AtdHGth3FZbWsyyMMoIw-mT1Psuc5

There are nuclear factories like this around the world:

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Wiederaufarbeitung#Standorte_f.C3.BCr_Wiederaufarbeitung

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January 21 - Lucens, CHEINES category 5

When the cooling system of an experimental reactor at the Lucens experimental nuclear power plant (VAKL) in the canton of Vaud failed, there was a partial core meltdown in the reactor. At the beginning of 1968 there was an examination of the reactor, which produced 8 MW of energy. It was put into operation in April / May, but then switched off again until January of the next year. During this standstill, external water ran through a defective fan seal into the reactor's cooling circuit. The magnesium fuel rod cladding tubes corroded. When the reactor was put back into operation on January 21, 1969 at 4:00 am, the corrosion products hindered the cooling. At around 17:00 p.m. the fuel overheated and several fuel rods melted. A whole bundle of fuel rods caught fire and burst the moderator tank. Carbon dioxide (coolant) and heavy water (moderator) leaked into the reactor cavern. Since the increased radioactivity was measured a little earlier, the power plant could be evacuated and the cavern isolated. A large amount of radiation was released into the Fels reactor cavern. The radioactive debris could only be cleared from the tunnel system years later. The cavern still contained a lot of radioactive material, but was closed in such a way that no radiation could initially get into the environment. The clean-up work lasted until May 1973. The rubble was stored in sealed containers on the site until it was transported to the central interim storage facility in Würenlingen (ZWILAG) in 2003. (INES level 4–5)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reaktor_Lucens

-

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Lucens,_Schweiz_1969

***


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1968

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01th of May - Sellafield, GBR

INES category 4

A month long discharge of radioactivity occurs from Building B230 stack as a result of a failed filter

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

-

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sellafield

-

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Sellafield_(ehemals_Windscale),_Gro%C3%9Fbritannien_1957

Reprocessing plants turn a few tons of nuclear waste into many tons of nuclear waste:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VqqHyqSycEU&list=PLJI6AtdHGth3FZbWsyyMMoIw-mT1Psuc5

There are nuclear factories like this around the world:

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Wiederaufarbeitung#Standorte_f.C3.BCr_Wiederaufarbeitung

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April 05 - Mayak, Chelyabinsk, USSRINES category 5

Technician died from exposure after initiating test at Russian Federal Nuclear Center.

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Majak_(Russland) 

Reprocessing plants turn a few tons of nuclear waste into many tons of nuclear waste:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VqqHyqSycEU&list=PLJI6AtdHGth3FZbWsyyMMoIw-mT1Psuc5

There are nuclear factories like this around the world:

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Wiederaufarbeitung#Standorte_f.C3.BCr_Wiederaufarbeitung

***


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1967

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Wurenlingen, CHEINES category 1 - 3

The small research reactor "Diorit" produced a melted fuel element, the reactor hall was contaminated. Later a waste water batch was made, which corresponded to 40 times the normal value. (Source: ASK, today's Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forschungsreaktor_Diorit

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Schweiz

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02th of May - Chaplecross, Scotland, UKINES category 4

Fuel rod caught fire and caused partial meltdown at the Chaplecross Magnox nuclear power station.

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Chapelcross

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Chapelcross_(Gro%C3%9Fbritannien) 

***


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1966

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05th October - Enrico Fermi, Michigan, United StatesINES category 4

A malfunction of the sodium cooling system in the Enrico Fermi demonstration nuclear breeder reactor on the shores of Lake Erie led to a partial meltdown in which no radiation escaped from the containment. The reactor core contained 105 fuel assemblies made of zirconium-lined pins. The accident is attributed to a piece of zirconium blocking a flow regulator in the sodium cooling system. The reactor building was automatically isolated by sensors; no personnel were in the building at this time. Employees managed to shut down the reactor manually. Two of the 105 fuel assemblies melted, but no radiation was measured outside the containment. However, weeks later there were still fears that it would be criticized. The 60 MWe reactor ran at full power again in October 1970. This incident provided the basis for the controversial polemic We Almost Lost Detroit by John G. Fuller. (INES level 4)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Enrico_Fermi_(USA)#Enrico_Fermi_1

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Fermi_(USA)

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02th of July - Muroroa Atoll, France's first atomic bomb test

The mushroom cloud stands for atomic or hydrogen bombs, also in the context of testsNuclear weapons proving groundhttp://www.spiegel.de/einestages/mururoa-wie-frankreich-atombomben-auf-dem-atoll-testete-a-1100371.html

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liste_von_Kernwaffentests

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https://www.atomwaffena-z.info/heute/atomwaffenstaaten.html

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07th of May - Melekess, near Nizhny Novgorod (Gorki), USSRINES category 4

At the Atomic Reactor Research Institute Melekess, a power excursion through fast neutrons took place in an experimental boiling water reactor (VK reactor). The operator and the shift supervisor received high doses of radiation. (INES level 3-4)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/RIAR

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/VK-50_Melekess_(Russland) 

***


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1965

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On March 2, 1965, the USA bombed North Vietnam for the first time, and from March 8, regular US combat troops land in Vietnam.

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January 20 - Lawrence Livermore, USAINES category 4

Roughly 350,000 Ci were released from a stack in building 331

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lawrence_Livermore_National_Laboratory 

***


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1964

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1964 to 1979 - Beloyarsk, USSRINES category 4

From 1964 to 1979 there was a series of destruction of fuel channels in reactor 1 of the Beloyarsk nuclear power plant. In each of these accidents, the personnel were exposed to significant radiation exposure. (INES level 4)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernkraftwerk_Belojarsk

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Beloyarsk_(Russland)

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23th of July - Charlestown, Rhode Island, United States INES category 4

At a Wood River Junction Chemical Process Plant in Charlestown, a man died of a fatal dose of radiation when a liquid uranium solution he was handling became critical. (INES level 4)

No more information!

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1964 - Lop Nor, China's nuclear weapons test site

The mushroom cloud stands for atomic or hydrogen bombs, also in the context of testsNuclear weapons proving groundThe Chinese Lop Nor Nuclear Weapons Test Site was established on April 1, 1960 in Xinjiang near Qinggir north of the Lop Nor desert in the Kuruk Tagh mountains as the largest nuclear weapons test site in the world with an area of ​​100.000 km². Between 1964 and 1996 a total of 45 above-ground (most recently on October 16, 1980) and underground nuclear tests for plutonium bombs and from 1967 also for hydrogen bombs were carried out there.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernwaffentestgel%C3%A4nde_Lop_Nor

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liste_von_Kernwaffentests

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https://www.atomwaffena-z.info/heute/atomwaffenstaaten.html

***


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1963

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Seemingly has been a happy year for humanity ...

Or did I just forget something?

***


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1962

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01th of May - Nasty, France's nuclear test site in Algeria

The mushroom cloud stands for atomic or hydrogen bombs, also in the context of testsNuclear weapons proving groundIn the vicinity of In Ekker, France operated an experimental center for the military ("Center d'expérimentations militaires des oasis, CEMO"). 7 nuclear weapons tests were carried out there between November 1961, 16 and February 1966, 13. On the second test (Beryl) on May 1, 1962, the tunnel was not closed. Radioactive gases, dust and lava were emitted. The observers of the test were contaminated (including French ministers present).

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algerien#Franz%C3%B6sische_Atomwaffentests

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algerien#Streitkr.C3.A4fte

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/In_Ekker

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liste_von_Kernwaffentests

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https://www.atomwaffena-z.info/heute/atomwaffenstaaten.html

***


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1961

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30th October - Novaya Zemlya, AN602 Hydrogen Bomb Test, USSR

The mushroom cloud stands for atomic or hydrogen bombs, also in the context of testsNuclear weapons proving groundThe AN602, also known as the Tsar bomb, was detonated on October 30, 1961 at 11:32 a.m. Moscow time over the test site in Mityushika Bay on the North Sea island of Novaya Zemlya. The bomb was dropped from a modified Tupolev Tu 95W bomber at an altitude of over 10.000 meters and slowed down by a parachute to give the aircraft sufficient time to leave the test area.
The explosion took place at an altitude of around 4.000 m. The explosive power of the Tsar bomb was 57 megatons TNT equivalent, making it around 4000 times as powerful as the Hiroshima Little Boy bomb and approximately three to four times as powerful as Castle Bravo, the most powerful nuclear weapon test in the United States. Was the designer of the Tsar bomb Andrei Sakharov ...

The amount of the chemical explosive TNT, which would release an energy comparable to the Tsar bomb (57 MT), would have a diameter of 400 meters as a sphere.

AN602 was the largest man-made nuclear weapon and the devastating effect made it clear to all politicians who think and act responsibly that continuing with larger and larger bombs would inevitably make this planet uninhabitable.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/AN602

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liste_von_Kernwaffentests

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https://www.atomwaffena-z.info/heute/atomwaffenstaaten.html

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June 19 - Sellafield, GBR

INES category 3

There was a release of plutonium bearing liquid into process cooling water from a leak in an evaporator ...

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sellafield

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Sellafield_(ehemals_Windscale),_Gro%C3%9Fbritannien_1957

Reprocessing plants turn a few tons of nuclear waste into many tons of nuclear waste:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VqqHyqSycEU&list=PLJI6AtdHGth3FZbWsyyMMoIw-mT1Psuc5

There are nuclear factories like this around the world:

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Wiederaufarbeitung#Standorte_f.C3.BCr_Wiederaufarbeitung

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INES category 4January 03 - NRTS Idaho Falls, USA

At the National Reactor Testing Station Idaho, the SL-1 experimental reactor suffered a critical steam explosion and major release of radioactive material that killed the three crew members. With the exception of iodine-131, the spread of the radiation was limited to an area of ​​12.000 m². In a 30 km radius around the reactor, the contamination of the vegetation by iodine-131 was about 100 times as high as the natural radiation intensity. Even 80 km away, the pollution of the vegetation was twice as high, including in a strip of landscape along the Snake River near Burley and American Falls. The reactor had manually operated control rods. Moving a single stick could have triggered the criticality incident. It was known that the rods could jam in the light aluminum housing. Some investigators believed that such a pole was stuck and suddenly came loose, which is believed to have started the accident. Investigators never found out why the baton was removed. An operator was found impaled by a control rod on the ceiling. The rod was apparently ejected by steam pressure. The reactor core consisted of highly enriched uranium (approx. 50%). Pulling out the control rod quickly led to a super-fast chain reaction (performance excursion), which triggered the steam explosion. The accident was discovered by workers outside the reactor building when a radiation and excess temperature alarm alerted the rescue workers. They found dose rate values ​​that exceeded 2 mSv / h a hundred meters from the reactor building. At first the rescue team could neither find a fire nor the victims, but they found radiation values ​​of around 10 mSv / h inside the reactor building. When suitable protective equipment arrived, a team broke into the reactor building and found a dead man and another member of the three-man operating team still alive. He was rescued immediately, but died a few hours later of acute radiation sickness. The dead man was rescued the following day, the initially missing member of the reactor crew only a few days later. According to a report by the US Atomic Energy Commission, 22 of the rescue workers received an equivalent dose in the range of 30 to 270 mSv. The reactor was dismantled and the 12 t core and the pressure vessel were buried away a few months later ... (INES level 4)

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Idaho_National_Laboratory

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Experimental_Breeder_Reactor_I

 

What's wrong with Wikipedia?

In the Wikipedia article linked from here, this fatal INES 4 incident is hardly mentioned.

The incident of November 4, 29.11.1955, which was also assessed with INES XNUMX, is not considered at all.

Two INES 4 incidents should actually be enough to include a separate category for incidents.

***


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1960

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April 03 - Waltz Mill, USA INES category 4

A partial core meltdown occurred at the reactor on the evening of Sunday, April 3, 1960. One fuel element melted, releasing the radioactive gaseous fission products krypton and xenon. The overheating and subsequent damage to the fuel element is reported to have caused by a local lack of sufficient coolant flow. The accident was rated a 4 on the International Nuclear Event Scale, an Accident with local consequences ...

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Westinghouse_TR-2#1960_accident

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February 13th - Reggane, France's nuclear test site in Algeria

The mushroom cloud stands for atomic or hydrogen bombs, also in the context of testsNuclear weapons proving groundAround 50 km southwest of Reggane or 20 km south of Hamoudia there was a French nuclear weapons test site (CSEM - Center Sahara des Expérimentations Militaires) until 1965. There, on February 13, 1960, France carried out its first nuclear test with a 70 kT atomic bomb, which was about 4 times as powerful as the Hiroshima bomb. On April 1, 1960, December 27, 1960 and April 25, 1961, three further above-ground atomic bomb tests with less than 5 kT each were carried out on this site ...

http://www.faz.net/aktuell/politik/ausland/atomtests-frankreich-liess-soldaten-vorsaetzlich-verstrahlen-1940835.html

Up to 30.000 people suffered damage as a result of the 4 above-ground nuclear tests.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algerien#Streitkr.C3.A4fte

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reggane

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liste_von_Kernwaffentests

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https://www.atomwaffena-z.info/heute/atomwaffenstaaten.html

***


Radioactive events of the years:
2019-2010 2009-2000 1999-1990 1989-1980
1979-1970 1969-1960 1959-1950 1949-1940

***


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1959

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November 20 - Oak Ridge Laboratories, USAINES category 4

At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, radiochemical factory, there was a chemical explosion during the decontamination of work facilities. A total of 15 grams of plutonium-239 was released. In the explosion, this caused considerable contamination of the building, the adjacent streets and the facades of adjacent buildings. It is believed that the explosion was caused by contact of nitric acid with decontamination fluids containing phenols. A technician forgot to clean a vaporizer with water to free it from decontamination fluids. Areas that could not be decontaminated were marked with a conspicuous warning color or set in concrete. Oak Ridge authorities began using containment when handling radioactive chemical materials. (INES level 3–4)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oak_Ridge_National_Laboratory

What's wrong with Wikipedia?

In the Wikipedia article linked from here, this INES 4 incident is not even mentioned.

Why are you letting this go? Aren't you afraid of your credibility?

You can find information about the incident here: List of accidents in nuclear facilities from 1950 to 1959

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July 26, 1959 - Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Simi Valley, USAINES category 6

At the Santa Susana Field Laboratory in California, which operated a sodium-cooled fast breeder with 7,5 MWe, a 30 percent core meltdown occurred in this reactor due to a blocked cooling duct. Most of the fission products could be filtered off. Most of the radioactive gases were released into the environment, which resulted in one of the largest iodine-131 releases in nuclear history. The accident was kept secret for a long time. (INES level 5-6)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santa_Susana_Field_Laboratory

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodium_Reactor_Experiment#Stoerfall_im_Jahr_1959

So it is also possible in Wikipedia! In the Wikipedia articles linked from here, this INES 6 incident is documented as an example.

***


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1958

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December 30 - Los Alamos, USAINES category 4

A criticality accident occurred while extracting a plutonium-containing solution at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in New Mexico. The operator died of acute radiation sickness. After this accident, manipulators were used for good when working with critical masses in the United States. Until then, despite the criticality accidents in the 1940s, manual labor in handling plutonium was widespread. (INES level 4)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Los_Alamos_National_Laboratory

What's wrong with Wikipedia? In the Wikipedia article linked from here, this INES 4 incident, like all other incidents in Los Alamos, is mentioned in just one sentence ...

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15th October - Vinca, YU

(No INES classification)

NTI - Nuclear Threat Initiative

Yugoslavia worked with Norway in the field of plutonium reprocessing, set up a department for the reprocessing of spent fuel elements in Vinca, signed a cooperation agreement with the Soviet Union in 1956 for the 6,5 MW research reactor RA (heavy water reactor with moderation and cooling) and built the RB, a critical arrangement with heavy water natural uranium at zero output. Described by Vinca officials as "essentially a reactor for producing plutonium," the RA reactor was fundamental to Tito's weapons research.

In the early 1960s, as the nuclear research program gained momentum, Tito reportedly rolled back the weapons aspect of the program. In 1958, one person was killed and five others were radiation poisoned in a criticality accident in the Vinca heavy water RB reactor. However, Tito's decision could also be due to the thaw in Soviet-Yugoslav relations after Stalin's death. Other factors may have been the program's apparent lack of results and the financial stress it put on the country's economy. Yugoslavia also advocated nuclear disarmament at the international level and urged the nuclear-armed states to renounce their nuclear weapons. Yugoslavia signed the NPT in 1968 and ratified it in 1970. There were also signs that the focus of the Yugoslav nuclear program was shifting from a research to a nuclear power program. After years of feasibility studies, the US company Westinghouse was commissioned to build the country's first nuclear power plant, a light water pressure reactor with a capacity of 664 MW in Krsko ...

https://www.nti.org/learn/countries/former-yugoslavia/nuclear/

Translated with https://www.DeepL.com/Translator (free version)

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Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

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May 24, 1958 - ChalkRiver, Ontario, CAN

(No INES classification)

On Saturday, May 24th, 1958, the NRU suffered a major accident. A damaged uranium fuel rod caught fire and was torn in two when it was removed from the core. The fire was extinguished, but a significant amount of radioactive products of combustion had contaminated the interior of the reactor building and, to a lesser extent, an area of ​​the surrounding laboratory grounds. It took three months to clean and repair. The NRU was back in operation in August 1958 ...

https://de.wikinew.wiki/wiki/National_Research_Universal_reactor#History

Fuel rod caught fire and contaminated half of facility.

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

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January 02 - Mayak, Chelyabinsk, USSRINES category 4

After a criticality experiment, the uranium solution should be transferred to geometrically safe containers. In order to save time, the experimenters bypassed the standard procedure for decanting because they assumed that the remaining solution was far subcritical. However, due to the changed geometry during the transfer, the presence of the people was sufficient to reflect enough neutrons for the solution to promptly become critical. The solution exploded and three workers received radiation doses of about 60 gray and died after five to six days. A worker at a distance of 3 meters received 6 Gray, survived the acute radiation sickness, but suffered from serious secondary diseases. The criticality experiments in this factory were then discontinued. On the international assessment scale for nuclear incidents (INES), the incident was classified at level 4 (accident) ...

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kerntechnische_Anlage_Majak#2._Januar_1958:_Kritikalit%C3%A4tsst%C3%B6rfall_in_Beh%C3%A4lter_mit_hochangereichertem_Uran

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Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf 

Reprocessing plants turn a few tons of nuclear waste into many tons of nuclear waste.

There are nuclear factories like this around the world:

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Wiederaufarbeitung#Standorte_f.C3.BCr_Wiederaufarbeitung

***


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1957

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October 07 - 12 - Windscale/ Sellafield, GBRINES category 5

In the Pile No. 1 in Windscale or Sellafield, technicians heated up the reactor in order to glow the so-called Wigner energy from the graphite, which serves as a moderator. The reactor was one of two air-cooled and graphite-moderated reactors. They were powered by natural uranium and were used to produce plutonium for nuclear weapons. They were cooled by a stream of air created by huge fans. On the morning of October 7, 1957, the reactor was shut down in a controlled manner and the air cooling was switched off. The reactor was then started up again in the lower power range. The technicians noticed a drop in temperature instead of a rise in temperature. In order to be able to dissipate the Wigner energy more quickly, the reactor was driven into an inadmissible power range the next day. The technicians, however, made a fallacy: In normal operation, the temperature peaks occurred in completely different places than during annealing. However, there were no sensors at these locations, and so the graphite began to burn there, initially unnoticed. The air filters only withstood the fire for a short time, after which the radioactivity could escape unhindered through the exhaust chimneys. Blue flames rose from the rear of the reactor. 750 TBq were released into the atmosphere. The fire burned for four days and consumed much of the graphite presenter. The technicians only managed to push part of the nuclear fuel rods out of the burning area of ​​the reactor. So they cut a firebreak by knocking out neighboring sticks. As a final consequence, the reactor was flooded with water. This flooding was very dangerous because the high temperature could have split the water into oxyhydrogen. This would have caused an explosion. Fortunately, however, the water smothered the fire. Large amounts of radioactive gases escaped into the atmosphere. These were mainly iodine, krypton and xenon. Milk production in an area of ​​520 km² was banned. Soon after the destruction of reactor 1 by the accident, reactor 2 was also shut down when it was realized that safe dissipation of the Wigner energy was impossible due to the design. The dismantling of the shutdown reactors began in 1993 and is expected to be completed in 2012. The accident is later blamed for dozens of cancer deaths. (INES level 5)

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sellafield

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Sellafield_(ehemals_Windscale),_Gro%C3%9Fbritannien_1957

Reprocessing plants turn a few tons of nuclear waste into many tons of nuclear waste:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VqqHyqSycEU&list=PLJI6AtdHGth3FZbWsyyMMoIw-mT1Psuc5

There are nuclear factories like this around the world:

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Wiederaufarbeitung#Standorte_f.C3.BCr_Wiederaufarbeitung

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September 29 - Mayak, the Kyshtym accident, USSRINES category 6

Also known as the Mayak Accident. The reprocessing plant there stored its waste products in large tanks. The radioactive decay of the substances generates heat, which is why these tanks have to be constantly cooled. After the cooling lines of one of these 1956 m³ tanks leaked in the course of 250 and the cooling was therefore switched off, the contents of this tank began to dry out. Triggered by a spark from an internal measuring device, the nitrate salts contained exploded and released large amounts of radioactive substances. Since the contaminated cloud remained close to the ground, the pollution in the area around the Russian Kyshtym was almost double the amount of the Chernobyl accident. Since the contamination was limited to the Urals, measuring devices did not sound the alarm in Europe (see Chernobyl accident), which meant that the accident could be kept secret from the global public for 30 years. (INES level 6)

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

-

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kyschtym-Unfall

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Majak,_ehemalige_Sowjetunion_1957 

Reprocessing plants turn a few tons of nuclear waste into many tons of nuclear waste.

There are nuclear factories like this around the world:

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Wiederaufarbeitung#Standorte_f.C3.BCr_Wiederaufarbeitung

***


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1956

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Seemingly has been a happy year for humanity ...

Or did I just miss something?

***


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1955

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December 08 - Windscale/ Sellafield, GBR

INES category 3

A fire occurred in a radioactive waste silo in Building B247 ...

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sellafield

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Sellafield_(ehemals_Windscale),_Gro%C3%9Fbritannien_1957

Reprocessing plants turn a few tons of nuclear waste into many tons of nuclear waste:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VqqHyqSycEU&list=PLJI6AtdHGth3FZbWsyyMMoIw-mT1Psuc5

There are nuclear factories like this around the world:

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Wiederaufarbeitung#Standorte_f.C3.BCr_Wiederaufarbeitung

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November 29 - NRTS Idaho Falls, USAINES category 4

The research reactor EBR-I suffered a partial core meltdown at the National Reactor Testing Station Idaho. The core of enriched uranium combined with 2% zirconium melted in tests that aimed at a rapid increase in performance because fuel tubes warped. By evaporation of the coolant NaK, the melting fuel was transported into the tubes of the cooling system and the criticality was not reached, whereby the reactor switched itself off. The reactor core was designed to be interchangeable and could be replaced ... (INES level 4)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Idaho_National_Laboratory

In the Wikipedia article, this INES 4 incident from November 29.11.1955, 4 is not even mentioned and the fatal incident from January 03.01.1961, 4, also rated as INES XNUMX, is only touched upon briefly. Two INES XNUMX incidents should actually be enough to include a separate section for incidents.

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Jul. 14, 1955 - Windscale / Sellafield, GBR

INES category 3

Another radioactive leak and remediation operation ...

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sellafield

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Sellafield_(ehemals_Windscale),_Gro%C3%9Fbritannien_1957

Reprocessing plants turn a few tons of nuclear waste into many tons of nuclear waste:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VqqHyqSycEU&list=PLJI6AtdHGth3FZbWsyyMMoIw-mT1Psuc5

There are nuclear factories like this around the world:

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Wiederaufarbeitung#Standorte_f.C3.BCr_Wiederaufarbeitung

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Mar. 25, 1955 - Windscale / Sellafield, GBR

INES category 4

Fire releases up to up to a few tenths of a terabecquerel of radioactivity into the atmosphere

Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

-

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sellafield

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Sellafield_(ehemals_Windscale),_Gro%C3%9Fbritannien_1957

Reprocessing plants turn a few tons of nuclear waste into many tons of nuclear waste:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VqqHyqSycEU&list=PLJI6AtdHGth3FZbWsyyMMoIw-mT1Psuc5

There are nuclear factories like this around the world:

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Wiederaufarbeitung#Standorte_f.C3.BCr_Wiederaufarbeitung

***


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1954

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February 28th - Bikini Atoll, Test series with 6 hydrogen bombs

The mushroom cloud stands for atomic or hydrogen bombs, also in the context of testsNuclear weapons proving groundOn February 28.02.1954, 6, the first of six hydrogen bomb tests took place within XNUMX weeks near Bikini Atoll, the entire series became known under the name 'Operation Castle'. As a result, 236 people on Rongelap Island suffered from high levels of radiation. The 140 crew members of the Japanese fishing boat were found 23 km from the explosion site.Lucky Dragon V.'heavily irradiated.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liste_von_Kernwaffentests

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https://www.atomwaffena-z.info/heute/atomwaffenstaaten.html

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1953

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Apparently it was a happy year for mankind, there were no major nuclear power plant incidents ...
Or did I just miss something?

An armistice agreement has been in force in Korea since July 27, 1953!

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1952

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December 12 - ChalkRiver, CANINES category 5

The first serious reactor accident occurred in the so-called NRX reactor at Chalk River Laboratories near Ottawa, Canada. During a test of the research reactor, incorrect operation, misunderstandings between the operator and the operating staff, incorrect status displays in the control room, incorrect assessments by the operator and hesitant action caused the reactor core to be destroyed in the event of a partial core meltdown. An oxyhydrogen explosion in the reactor core threw the dome of a four-tonne helium gas container 1,2 m high, causing it to get stuck in the structure. The explosion released at least 100 TBq of fission products into the atmosphere. Up to four million liters of radioactively contaminated water with around 400 TBq of long-lived fission products were pumped from the basement of the reactor containment into a sandy septic tank in order to prevent contamination of the nearby Ottawa River. The damaged reactor core was buried. The later one US President Jimmy Carter, then a nuclear technician in the Navy, helped with the months-long cleanup. The reactor went back into operation two years later. (INES level 5)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chalk_River_Laboratories

This INES 5 incident is hardly mentioned in the Wikipedia article. The information you are looking for is only available via the following link.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/NRX-Reaktor#Reaktorunfall

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Nuclear Power Accidents-2016.pdf

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liste_von_Unfaellen_in_kerntechnischen_Anlagen

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Chalk_River,_Kanada_1952

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03th October - Trimouille Island, Britain's first nuclear test

The mushroom cloud stands for atomic or hydrogen bombs, also in the context of testsNuclear weapons proving ground Great Britain used test sites in Australia (12 tests), on the Christmas Island (6 attempts) and on Malden Island (3 tries).

The Operation Hurricane was the first British Atomic bomb testwho lived on October 3, 1952 on Trimouille Island, one of 174 little ones Montebello Islands was carried out on the northwest coast in Western Australia.

The last atmospheric test took place in 1958. In 1962, Great Britain allowed the United States to conduct the Dominic test series on the Christmas Islands. Britain joined the ban on atmospheric nuclear weapons tests in 1962. Thereafter, all tests were carried out underground in cooperation with the USA on the Nevada Test Site (24 tests), most recently in 1991. Great Britain carried out a total of 45 tests.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liste_von_Kernwaffentests

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https://www.atomwaffena-z.info/heute/atomwaffenstaaten.html

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1951

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Apparently it was a happy year for mankind, there were no major nuclear power plant incidents ...
Or did I just miss something?

***


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1950

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Apparently it was a happy year for mankind, there were no major nuclear power plant incidents ...
Or did I just miss something?

Oh yes, the Korean War started on June 25, 1950!

***


Radioactive events of the years:
2019-2010 2009-2000 1999-1990 1989-1980
1979-1970 1969-1960 1959-1950 1949-1940

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1949

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02 December - "Green Run" Hanford site, USA
Release of radioactivity

Nuclear weapons proving groundThe Green Run experiment saw the release of a radioactive cloud from the Hanford Site military nuclear complex. Estimates are in the range of several 100 TBq of iodine-131 and even more cesium-133. The iodine-131 portion alone was 5500 curie; this corresponds to roughly 250 times the amount that, according to official figures, was released into the area in the 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant near Harrisburg. The dangers of iodine 131 for the thyroid gland had not yet been recognized in the 1940s; iodine 131 could escape unfiltered from the Hanford site even when it was used as intended. During normal operation, several 10 TBq of medium- and long-lived nuclides were released into the Columbia River every day. Hanford is considered to be the most severely radioactive place in the western hemisphere.

At that time hardly anyone knew anything about what happened on December 02.12.1949nd, XNUMX in Hanford Washington. We all got something out of it ...

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_Run

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hanford_Site

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https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Hanford_(USA)

Reprocessing plants turn a few tons of nuclear waste into many tons of nuclear waste:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VqqHyqSycEU&list=PLJI6AtdHGth3FZbWsyyMMoIw-mT1Psuc5

There are nuclear factories like this around the world:

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Wiederaufarbeitung#Standorte_f.C3.BCr_Wiederaufarbeitung

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29th of August - Semipalatinsk, "RDS-1" First atomic bomb test of the Soviet Union

The mushroom cloud stands for atomic or hydrogen bombs, also in the context of testsNuclear weapons proving groundThe Soviet Union carried out its first atomic bomb test ("RDS-1") on Aug 29, 1949 on the Semipalatinsk nuclear weapons test site (now Kazakhstan) through. Between 1949 and 1990, the Soviet Union carried out a total of 715 tests with 969 individual explosives ...

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liste_von_Kernwaffentests

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https://www.atomwaffena-z.info/heute/atomwaffenstaaten.html

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1948

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Apparently it was a happy year for mankind, there were no major nuclear power plant incidents ...
Or did I just miss something?

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1947

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Apparently it was a happy year for mankind, there were no major nuclear power plant incidents ...
Or did I just miss something?

***


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1946

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July - Bikini Atoll, Pacific Ocean

The mushroom cloud stands for atomic or hydrogen bombs, also in the context of testsNuclear weapons proving groundThe Operation crossroads was the second nuclear test operation by the United States Armed Forces. It comprised two nuclear tests, 'Able' and 'Baker', on Bikini Atoll in the American Pacific Islands Trust Territory in the summer of 1946, each with a TNT equivalent of 23 kT: Test Able was one on July 1, 1946 from a Boeing B. -29 Mk.158 implosion bombs dropped and detonated 3 meters above the lagoon. Test Baker was an underwater detonation of an identical bomb at a depth of 27 meters and took place on July 25, 1946 March 1 took place in greater depth, but was canceled.

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liste_von_Kernwaffentests

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https://www.atomwaffena-z.info/heute/atomwaffenstaaten.html

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21th of May - Los Alamos, USAINES category 4

The Nuclear weapons factory in Los Alamos Canadian physicist Louis Slotin carried out tests on the criticality of plutonium in the presence of several scientists. The experimental set-up consisted of a subcritical plutonium core weighing about 6 kg (the same one that was involved in the accident of 1945 and which was subsequently referred to as the "Demon Core") and two hemispherical shells made of beryllium, which served as neutron reflectors and the Could enclose core. The closer the hemispherical shells were brought together, the fewer neutrons could escape and the lower the mass required for criticality. Typically, two 3,2mm spacers acted as a safety device, but Slotin removed them before starting the experiment. Instead, he placed a screwdriver in the gap, rotating it to slowly bring the hemispherical cups closer together while holding the top cup with his other hand. However, the screwdriver slipped out and the arrangement promptly became overly critical. Those involved felt a brief heat wave and the test room was shrouded in a bluish shimmer (Cherenkov light). Slotin was able to lift off the upper hemispherical shell and thus reduce the reactivity again. However, as a result of the accident, he was exposed to a fatal absorbed dose of about 10 Gray, the seven observers received up to 1,7 Gray. Slotin died of radiation sickness on May 30th. This accident is also discussed in the film "Fat Man and Little Boy" (1989). (INES level 4)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Slotin

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liste_von_Unfaellen_in_kerntechnischen_Anlagen

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1945

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21th of August - Los Alamos, USA

INES category 4

Harry K. Daghlian Jr. worked on the Omega site of the Nuclear weapons factory in Los Alamos and created supercritical mass when he accidentally dropped a tungsten carbide chunk on a plutonium core. Although he pushed the piece away, he received a fatal dose of radiation in the incident and died on September 15, 1945. (INES level 4)

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_Daghlian

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https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liste_von_Unfaellen_in_kerntechnischen_Anlagen

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06 and 09 August - dropping the Atomic bombs on Japan

The mushroom cloud stands for atomic or hydrogen bombs, also in the context of testsAugust 9, 1945 - The 2nd atomic bomb - plutonium bomb 'Fat man' - dropped on Nagasaki! (Explosive power 22.000 tons of TNT)

August 6, 1945 - The first atomic bomb - the 'Little Boy' uranium bomb - was dropped on Hiroshima! (Explosive force 1 tons of TNT)

The two Atomic bomb explosions killed a total of about 92.000 people immediately.
A further 130.000 people died as a result of the attacks by the end of 1945, and countless others died from consequential damage in the years that followed.

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16th of July - "Trinity", New Mexico, USA

The mushroom cloud stands for atomic or hydrogen bombs, also in the context of testsNuclear weapons proving groundThe US led the first "Trinity" atomic bomb test in the Alamogordo Test Range, plutonium-239 produced at the Hanford site was used as fissile material; the explosive force was 20-22 kilotons (kT).

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liste_von_Kernwaffentests

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https://www.atomwaffena-z.info/heute/atomwaffenstaaten.html

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1944

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The 2nd World War is raging ...

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1943

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The 2nd World War is raging ...

Work on the Hanford Engineer Works (HEW) began in March 1943. Before the end of the war in August 1945, 554 buildings were erected in Hanford:

- three reactors (100-B, 100-D, and 100-F)

- three plutonium processing plants (200-T, 200-B, and 200-U)

- 64 underground tanks for highly radioactive waste

- uranium enrichment plants

- 621 km of road

- 254 km of railway line

- 4 electrical distribution stations

- plus hundreds of kilometers of fences.

For this, 600.000 m³ of concrete and 40.000 tons of steel were used at a total cost of 230 million US dollars. In the city of Richland, shelters for workers were also built. Hanford is considered to be the most severely radioactive place in the Western Hemisphere ...

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1942

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The 2nd World War is raging ...

In July 1942, the Uranium Committee of the State Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) started an intensive research program on plutonium at the University of Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory (MetLab).

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1941

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The 2nd World War is raging ...

On December 07.12.1941th, XNUMX, Japanese naval aviators attacked the American port 'Pearl Harbor'in Hawaii, on December 08.12.1941th, XNUMX the USA officially entered World War II.

On February 24.02.1941th, 94, the chemist Arthur Wahl provided clear evidence for the element XNUMX (plutonium).

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1940

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The 2nd World War is raging ...

Plutonium was founded by the Americans Glenn T. Seaborg, JW Kennedy, EM McMillan, Michael Cefola and Arthur Wahl on 14.12.1940 discovered, they produced the isotope 238Pu by bombarding uranium 238U with deuterium in a cyclotron ...

The Second World War started on 01.09.1939 with the German invasion of Poland. At that time, Japan was in a border war with the Soviet Union (1938/39) and in East Asia, since the incident at the Marco Polo Bridge on 07.07.1937/XNUMX/XNUMX, in war with China ...

Am 02.08.1939 Albert Einstein wrote the letter to US President Roosevelt that he himself later described as his "greatest mistake".

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Radioactive events of the years:
2019-2010 2009-2000 1999-1990 1989-1980
1979-1970 1969-1960 1959-1950 1949-1940

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Sources

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INES (International Nuclear Event Scale)

INES NEWS Events - The current incident reports from the IAEA ...

 

Nuclear power accidents

Since the "INES Nuclear Event List" has proven to be of limited use for empirical analyzes, three risk researchers from the University of Sussex and ETH Zurich, Spencer Wheatley, Benjamin Sovacool and Didier Sornette, compiled their own list of nuclear accidents for their work and published on March 22, 2016 in the magazine "Risk Analysis"published an article on the subject. This list contains some accidents which, for whatever reason, did not make it onto the INES list ...

Nuclear Power Incidents and Accidents (PDF)

 

NAMS - Nuclear Accident Magnitude Scale

The facts from three different lists, the nuclear power accidents, INES and NAMS in one PDF file ...

Nuclear Power Accidents + NAMS + INES (PDF)

Also read the article in 'www.spiegel.de' from July 08.07.2016th, XNUMX: 'Nuclear power risk: when will the next nuclear power plant blow up?'

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Wikipedia:

List of nuclear power plants - worldwide

List of nuclear facilities - worldwide

 

List of accidents in nuclear facilities - worldwide
Accident --- INES 4 until 7

List of faults in European nuclear power plants
Incident --- INES 1 until 3

List of reportable events in German nuclear facilities
reportable event --- INES 0

 

11.03.2011/XNUMX/XNUMX Super disaster in Fukushima

26.04.1986/XNUMX/XNUMX Super disaster in Chernobyl

28.03.1979/XNUMX/XNUMX 'Three Mile Island' in Harrisburg

 

Hanford Site Nuclear Plant Plutonium production

Oak Ridge National Laboratory Atomic bomb factory

Los Alamos National Laboratory Nuclear Research - Manhatten Project

 

List of nuclear weapons tests - From 1945 to 2013 there were 2.053 nuclear weapons tests!

The atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945.

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Nuclear power plants plague

https://atomkraftwerkeplag.wikia.org/de/wiki/Weitere_Atomunf%C3%A4lle_und_St%C3%B6rf%C3%A4lle

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Nuclear weapons AZ:

https://www.atomwaffena-z.info/heute/atomwaffenstaaten.html

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'Nothing at all' Information about Gundremmingen.

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Der Spiegel:

When will the next nuclear power plant blow up? --08.07.2016

The nuclear state - Japan in May 2011

The cold shiver runs down my spine - Mirror 17/1987

The THTR incident in the "Spiegel" - Germany in June 1986

Information about Gundremmingen - Germany in November 1975

Los Alamos - Forbidden City - USA in December 1962

Lucky Dragon V. - a Japanese fishing boat near Bikini Atoll in March 1954

 


Nuclear supervision in Germany

In Germany, the term is used to denote the regulatory and licensing authorities under nuclear law, which, like the financial administrations, are located in the federal states, while the legislative competence in nuclear law rests with the federal government. The German nuclear supervisory authorities are usually assigned to the relevant Ministry of the Environment and supervise the safety of all relevant areas of the nuclear facilities of the respective federal state and approve all essential safety-related changes. The establishment of the nuclear supervisory authorities in the federal states was one of the foundations for the dispute over the Federal Council's obligation to consent to the extension of the service life of German nuclear power plants in 2010 by the federal government. In other countries such as Great Britain or Switzerland, the nuclear regulator is a federal authority, unlike in Germany.

 

Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety

Federal Office for Radiation Protection

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State ministries for the environment:

Ministry for the Environment, Climate Protection and the Energy Sector Baden-Wuerttemberg;


Bavarian State Ministry for the Environment and Consumer Protection;


Hessian Ministry for the Environment, Climate Protection, Agriculture and Consumer Protection;


Ministry of Agriculture, Environment and Consumer Protection of the State of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania;


Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Agriculture and Consumer Protection of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia;


Ministry of the Environment, Agriculture, Food, Viticulture and Forests RLP;


Saxon State Ministry for Environment and Agriculture;

 


Atomic authorities, responsible for supervision, funding
and sometimes also for cover-up:

IAEA - International Atomic Energy Agency

Belgium: FANK Federal Agency for Nuclear Control

China: China National Nuclear Corporation

Finland: STUK Säteilyturvakeskus

France: ASN Autorité de sûreté nucléaire

Great Britain: Office for Nuclear Regulation

India: AERB Atomic Energy Regulatory Board

Iran: Iranian Atomic Energy Organization

Israel: Israel Atomic Energy Commission

Japan: Japanese Nuclear Regulatory Agency

Netherlands: KFD nuclear physical service

Russia: Rostekhnadzor

Sweden: SSM Strålsäkerhetsmyndigheten

Switzerland: ENSI Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate

Spain: CSN Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear

South Korea: Nuclear Safety and Security Commission

Czech Republic: SUJB State Office for Nuclear Safety

USA: NRC Nuclear Regulatory Commission

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