Nuclear world The uranium story
INES and the nuclear accidents Radioactive low radiation?!
Uranium transports through Europe The ABC deployment concept

The uranium story


History and mythology Uranium mining
Uranium research Fissile Atoms
Nuclear accidents Nuclear lobby / uranium economy / MIC

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I am part of that force
who always wants evil and always creates good.
I am the spirit that always denies!
And rightly so; because everything that arises
is worth it to perish;
So it would be better if nothing came about.
So is everything that you sin,
Destruction, in short evil,
my real element.

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749 - 1832)
Fist. The tragedy first part, 1808. Mephistopheles speaks to Faust.

History and mythology


The history of uranium is a history of trials and tribulations, false hopes, deceptions and greed for power.

But slowly, one by one!

Uranium the novel 1789 MH Klaproth according to the planet Uranus named. The planet was 1781 W Herschel been discovered. Uranus, for his part, was in the name of the Greek god Uranus been baptized ...


The creation of uranium

False color image of the Crab Nebula, remnant of the supernova from the year 1054, the colors correspond to different areas of the electromagnetic spectrum from infrared to X-rays. - X-ray: NASA / CXC / J.Hester (ASU); Optical: NASA / ESA / J. Hester & A. Loll (ASU); Infrared: NASA / JPL-Caltech / R.Gehrz (Univ. Minn.) - the Big Bang 13,8 billion years ago they were the first light elements Hydrogen (H1) and helium (He2) were formed.

In the course of the evolution of the universe, nuclear reactions in stars have always'heavier elements' created.

The explosions of young stars 'inoculate' the surrounding universe with the lighter elements (up to order number 60), whereas older stars, on their last great appearance, emit the heavier elements.

The metals, from iron to gold and platinum to uranium and plutonium, come from the remains of various'supernovae', with which very heavy, old stars said goodbye.

First on 17.08.2017 Astronomers were able to use gravitational waves and dozens of telescopes to find one cosmic factory of the heaviest elements track down and observe.



History and mythology Uranium mining
Uranium research Fissile Atoms
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Uranium mining - uranium extraction


First uranium discoveries in the 16th century

In Joachimsthal (Jáchymov in the Czech Republic) has been since 1516 Silver mined in large quantities. The resulting black rock, 'Pitchblende' was the obvious sign of a silver vein running dry. So the miners were unlucky when they encountered 'pitchblende' and dumped this supposedly worthless material on the rubbish heaps (spoil heaps) next to the mine. It was only many years later that the first interest in this material arose ...


Pressures from uranium mining

Even when mining uranium ore, deadly dangers lurk, radioactive radon gas is released and the spoil still contains up to 85 percent of the original radioactivity.

The wind blows the radiant particles from the spoil heaps in all directions.

The rainwater seeps through the heaps and contaminates more and more soil and groundwater ...


The uranium rush in the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries

- In Johanngeorgenstadt was 1839 the first uranium ore mined.

- To 1939 were in Germany 104 t reduced.

- Between 1946 and 1995 promoted the Company bismuth living 235 t.

- Alone in the year 2015 was the delivery rate worldwide 60496 t Uranium ore.


The uranium price

The IAEA lists around 4500 uranium deposits worldwide. 1200 uranium mines are considered "dormant" and less than 150 uranium mines are operational. For years, the price per pound of uranium has not been sufficient to operate uranium mines profitably.

Uranium price was US$2011/lbs in Jan 60 and US$2021/lbs in Jan 30.


uranium price

The following list shows the maximum prices for uranium oxide (U3O8) in US dollars per pound (454 grams).

Maximum prices:

2007 = $136,22

2014 = $44,00

2021 = $50,80 

March 10, 2022 = $59,15


The Uranium Atlas 2022

Data and facts about the raw material of the nuclear age

The raw material uranium seems indispensable: "Extraction without major risks", "Winnable nuclear first strike", "Nuclear power as a climate-neutral alternative" and "Energy independence through nuclear power" are the slogans. World politics is currently also nuclear politics. The nuclear industry tries to sit at the table everywhere. 

But the truth is different: uranium is mainly mined in areas of indigenous peoples in the Global South - with extreme risks for the environment and health. The major mining and enrichment companies are based in just a few countries in the Global North. All states that use nuclear power are correspondingly dependent ...



History and mythology Uranium mining
Uranium research Fissile Atoms
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Uranium research


Uranium glass - 320px U glass with black light - discovery of uranium

The wild dance around uranium began very slowly in the year 1789 in Berlin.

The German chemistry professor and pharmacist Martin Heinrich Klaproth isolated from the mineral 'pitchblende' (Uranite, uranium) the element uranium.

Uranium compounds were used to color glass and ceramics throughout the 19th century.

Vases and decorative items, but also everyday utensils such as bowls and glasses, shine in a magically shimmering, yellow-green color due to the admixture of uranite (Anna yellow, Eleanor green).


The exploration of uranium

1896 discovered Antoine Henri Becquerel the phenomenon of previously completely unknown radiation.

1897 erkannt to Ernest Rutherfordthat the 'ionizing radiation' of uranium consists of several types of particles.

1898 was this radiation from Marie Curie and Pierre Curie researched further, she coined the term 'radioactive'.

1903 wies Frederick Soddy together with Sir William Ramsay according to the fact that helium is formed when radium decays.


What is 'radioactivity'?

Radioactivity (lat. Radius 'ray' and activus 'active', 'effective'; dt. Radiation activity) is the property of unstable atomic nuclei, spontaneous ionizing radiation to send out. The nucleus transforms into another nucleus with the emission of particles or changes its state by releasing energy.

This conversion process is called 'nuclear decay' or 'radioactive decay'.

What is 'ionizing radiation'?

Radiation transports energy - starting from a radiation source.

With ionizing radiation there is a greater energy transport (per photon / light particle) than with visible light or with infrared radiation (thermal radiation).

This can change matter into which ionizing radiation penetrates. Specifically, atoms or molecules are ionized, that is, electrons are "knocked out" of the shell of atoms or molecules. The remaining atom or molecule is then (at least for a short time) electrically positively charged. Electrically charged particles are called ions.

When ionizing radiation hits living cells or organisms, it can cause more or less severe damage in the cells and organisms through these ionization processes or through other changes in molecules.

See also:

'Radioactive low radiation ?! What is ionizing radiation? '


Uranium in drinking water

In addition to its radiotoxic potential, uranium has a chemical-toxic potential that is about five times stronger, for example to damage the kidneys. The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) has derived a limit value for uranium of 2 μg / l for drinking and mineral water that is advertised for the preparation of baby food.

Federal Institute for Risk Assessment:
Questions and answers about uranium in mineral water

Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection:
Ordinance on the quality of water for human consumption (Drinking Water Ordinance - TrinkwV of 2001)
With the amendment to the Drinking Water Ordinance, which came into force on November 1, 2011, a limit value of 10 µg / l was introduced for uranium in drinking water.

Environmental Institute Munich eV:
Radioactivity in drinking and mineral water


Federal Environment Agency:
Uranium in water and soil (.pdf)
Among other things, it is about uranium in fertilizer and thus in water and soil.



History and mythology Uranium mining
Uranium research Fissile Atoms
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Fissile Atoms - 233U - 235U - 239Pu


Otto Hahn discovered in 1938: 235U is fissile!

Only radioactive elements with an odd number of neutrons can be fissioned at all. (Uranium 92 + 143 neutrons = 235U) uranium 235U is with it, next to the extremely rare plutonium isotope 239Pu, the only known naturally occurring element capable of fission chain reactions. Because of this, find 235U and 239Pu Use as a primary energy source in nuclear power plants and nuclear weapons.

For this purpose, large amounts of uranium with a high proportion of uranium are used 235U needed, the manufacturing process is Uranium enrichment called and consumes enormous amounts of natural uranium.

235U was the fissile material in the atomic bomb that fell on August 6, 1945 Hiroshima was dropped.


What is 'Uranium, uranium'?

Uranium is due to it radioactivity highly dangerous and, like most heavy metals, chemically toxic!

Uranium has always been chemical element with the element symbol U and the ordinal number 92 im Periodic table of the elements.

U 92 - The atomic nucleus of uranium consists of 92 protons

Periodic table of the elements - 1052px Periodic table German EN.svg - By Joshua D. Wondrousch, Mattlaabs - Own work based on: File: Periodic table (German) .svg, Gemeinfrei, .php? curid = 19964114

PSE - The Periodic Table of the Elements

Naturally occurring Uranium includes 99,3 % water content 238U and only 0,7 % water content 235U.

238U = uranium 92 protons plus 146 neutrons / not fissile

235U = uranium 92 protons plus 143 neutrons / fissile


Interactive version of the periodic table
with a 'wow factor'!


PSE - The Periodic Table of the Elements


Uranium 92 but is not just any of the chemical elements, it's almost unique. Just that Plutonium 94 is of a similar nature.

In the completely natural way of radioactivity, the elements uranium and plutonium are able to spontaneously and completely change their nature by emitting protons and neutrons - ionizing radiation. New elements are created.

Half-life of uranium 238U = 4,5 billion years


When U 92 disintegrates arise:

Im PSE to the left of the uranium - the lighter derivatives of uranium. The first elements to emerge are protactinium Pa 91 and thorium Th 90.

The Decay series of uranium 238U ends, after billions of years, with non-radioactive Pb 82 lead 206Pb.

An element that is of interest to a wide variety of research directions and which has recently been mentioned more and more frequently is ruthenium RU 44.


When U 92 is doped, the following occurs:

Im PSE to the right of the uranium - the heavy transuranic elements, neptunium NP 93, plutonium Pu 94 and Ununoctium Uuo 118, can be made from uranium U 92 are artificially produced.

Transuranic elements can be made from uranium, this process will Transmutation mentioned.

For this purpose, atomic nuclei are bombarded with neutrons or other atomic nuclei; the transuranic elements are formed by the core fusions that occur.



What is 'Plutonium'?

Plutonium is the chemical element with the element symbol Pu and the ordinal number 94. Plutonium is a transuranium and like uranium, a poisonous one, radioactive Heavy metal. The dwarf planet Pluto, which was widely valued at the time, was happy to be the namesake and godfather. In the meantime, both Pluto and Plutonium are not quite as popular anymore ...

Half-life of plutonium 239Pu = 24.110 years


Plutonium only occurs in the smallest traces in nature. The quantities that are generated daily in over 400 nuclear power plants around the world are far greater.

Since the explosive effect of plutonium is much greater than that of uranium, it is practically only produced for military use. As the favorite of military strategists, plutonium plays a crucial role in the construction of nuclear weapons. When it comes to weapon development, the wishes of the military are limitless, that's in the nature of things. There are no barriers in sight, higher, bigger, further is the motto for decades.

Research on nuclear power plants for purely civil purposes?

Without the Production of plutonium?

This is out of the question for the military - because pure waste of money!

So that's how it became purely civil nuclear research from politics at first gladly
- Unfortunately I couldn't find a picture of a politician with a fig leaf -
but later only half-heartedly supported. At the inevitable as well as bitter end, the approach of a purely civil nuclear research was no longer funded - because pure waste of money!

What do we learn from this?

Electricity from atom is nothing - because pure waste of money!

The production of a few kg of plutonium results in tens of tons of nuclear waste.

Nuclear reactors hatch 238U - 239Pu

This is how the non-fissile uranium becomes 238U the coveted, fissile plutonium 239Pu.

239Pu was the fissile material in the atomic bomb that fell on August 9, 1945 Nagasaki was dropped.



What is 'Thorium'?

The element thorium occurs in nature much more frequently than uranium, because in the course of time a lot of uranium has decayed to thorium.

The radioactive metal is mined in Australia, Norway, Sri Lanka, Canada, USA, India, Lapland and Brazil.

The global total reserves of extractable thorium dioxide are estimated at over one million t.

Silent deposits of around 800.000 tons can be found in Turkey alone and about the same in India.

Half-life of thorium 228Th = 19.116 years


By the way:

The THTR 300 - Thorium high-temperature reactor with 300 megawatts - in Hamm-Uentrop it should actually be operated with thorium as fuel!

This resulted in "great arguments" for the innovative concept of the THTR:

1. Thorium is abundant

2. The half-life of thorium is much shorter than that of uranium

3. No plutonium is produced in the reactor

But then with the thorium rather worked, the fuel element spheres were instead made with uranium and thus all the "great arguments" were done in one fell swoop.

That was one of the first major setbacks for the reactor in Hamm, but of course this unsightly development was never discussed openly and honestly.


2012 appeared in 'Spectrum'the translation of an article from'Nature'

The forgotten danger of thorium

Many consider thorium to be a miracle fuel for future nuclear reactors. But the material harbors risks: a group of five nuclear technicians warns that it is too easy to extract weapons-grade uranium.
Stephen F Ashley, Geoffrey T Parks, William J Nuttall, Colin Boxall, Robin W Grimes

Thorium is simply a miracle material, it is said again and again: The element could be used in a new generation of nuclear reactors and generate energy there safely, efficiently and with low CO2 emissions. In addition, it is considered unsuitable for secondary military use. Because, unlike uranium, the material is initially unsuitable for use in nuclear weapons. However, we consider this point of view to be too one-sided ...

1,6 tons of thorium are enough to produce the eight kilograms of uranium set by the IAEA as the critical limit. With the method described, it would be feasible to produce this amount of uranium in less than a year from thorium alone.

more ...


Made of thorium 232Th is by neutron irradiation 233Th hatched; this falls apart protactinium 233Pa in uranium 233U and 233U is fissile!



What are 'Fission products'?

During the nuclear fission of uranium in nuclear power plants or nuclear weapons, besides plutonium, a number of other dangerous fissile substances are formed, e.g. cesium, technetium, krypton, strontium, iodine, ruthenium, rhodium, palladium and also the super-heavy hydrogen isotope tritium (called ³H or T).


The 'radioative isotopes' Tritium, 137cesium, 90Strontium and 131Iodine let's take a closer look because they pose great dangers.


Tritium has a half-life of 12,32 years.

'Tritium can be stored and converted in the body in the form of water. A French-Belgian study from 2008 concludes that its radiological effects have so far been underestimated. B. store in the DNA (genetic material), which can be problematic, especially during pregnancy. Another study even comes to the conclusion that the effects of tritium may have been underestimated by a factor of 1000-5000 so far. '

In Fukushima should 780.000 tons of tritium-contaminated water be released into the ocean (as of July 2017).

Update from January 2018: In the meantime, over 1 million tons of water contaminated with Tritum have accumulated, which are to be drained in the course of 2018 ...


137cesium has a half-life of 30 years.

The main problem with 137cesium, which is in the form of salts, is its high water solubility. the 137Cesium ions therefore distribute themselves well in the body and especially in muscle tissue. The biological half-life is then 70 days. This means that half of the cesium is excreted after 70 days.


90Strontium has a half-life of 28 years.

Main problem with 90Strontium is its chemical similarity to calcium, which is why the element is incorporated into bones. 90Strontium can, for example, be easily detected in the teeth of people born after 1963 as a result of the worldwide tests of nuclear weapons.

A direct relationship between amount of built-in 90Strontium and the likelihood of cancer was created and eventually resulted in the aboveground atomic bomb tests being discontinued.


131Iodine has a half-life of 8 days.

The dangerous β-radiation reaches penetration depths of only a few millimeters. The problem is that thyroid hormones also contain iodine.

Because the body is the unstable 131Iodine cannot differentiate from stable iodine, he also uses it in the biosynthesis of hormones.

As a production site, the thyroid gland is more frequently affected by radiation effects - in the form of thyroid cancer - because it keeps iodine-containing intermediate compounds in stock.



History and mythology Uranium mining
Uranium research Fissile Atoms
Nuclear accidents Nuclear lobby / uranium economy / MIC

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Nuclear accidents


There have been quite a few accidents in nuclear facilities:

2011 Fukushima - Japan (INES 7),

1986 Chernobyl - USSR (INES 7),

1979 Three Mile Island - USA (INES 5),

1977 Beloyarsk - USSR (INES 5)

1969 Lucens - Switzerland (INES 5),

1957 Sellafield - GB - The Windscale Fire (INES 5),

1957 Mayak - USSR - The Kyshtym Accident (INES 6)

and much more.

You can find more on this topic here:

INES and the nuclear accidents



The older the systems, the more likely malfunctions and accidents become.

The methusalems of the nuclear industry:



In operation


Tarapore India 01.04.1969 ??
Beznau Switzerland 17.07.1969 (2019)
Oyster Creek USA 23.09.1969 (14.12.2019)
extended until
Nine_Mile_Point_1 USA 09.11.1969 (2014)
extended until
R._E._Ginna_1 USA 02.12.1969 (31.03.2017)
extended until
Pickering_1 Canada 04.04.1971 (31.08.2018)
Oskarshamn Sweden 19.08.1971 (2017)
Karachi Pakistan 18.10.1971 ??
Novovoronezh Russia 28.12.1972 (2017)
boresele Netherlands 04.07.1973 (2033)
Leningrad Russia 21.12.1973 (2019)
Ring neck Sweden 17.08.1974 (2020)
Doel Belgium 28.08.1974  (2025) 
Tihange Belgium 07.03.1975  (01.04.2025) 
Hinkley_Point Great Britain 05.02.1976 (2023)
Hunterston Great Britain 06.02.1976 (2023)
Fessenheim France 06.04.1977 (31.12.2018)
bugey France  10.05.1978 (15.03.2019)
Gosgen Switzerland 02.02.1979 unbefristet



History and mythology Uranium mining
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nuclear lobby / Uranium economy / MIC


For all propagandists, Experts, pocket filler,
great statesmen and horror clowns

After the explosions near the Chernobyl and Zaporozhye nuclear power plants, anyone who still seriously claims that operating nuclear power plants is a good thing must now ask themselves whether the Military Industrial Complex (MIK) really has enough for such propaganda bezahlt.

Because whoever still wants to tell people in the spring of 2022 that a "dirty bomb" in the back yard can also have its advantages, must consider people to be completely stupid. As a consultant he loses his credibility and is therefore at best still acceptable for dictators. As a politician he loses his credibility for all time and is - even for MIK - at best can still be used as a despot.

The payment must therefore be good beyond all measure.


Although the arguments of the nuclear lobby have long since failed, the "Friends of MIK" behave like the proverbial dove on the chessboard:

Arguing with nuclear lobbyists is like playing chess with a pigeon. No matter how good your chess game, the pigeon will knock over all the pieces, poop on the board and strut around like it won.

This saying comes from the soccer player Erik Cantona and is originally: "Arguing with racists is like..."

This is called the upper hand technique in psychology. On the other hand, you can only ever lose, no matter how superior you actually are. The upper hand technique is also often used by bosses to bully overly skilled and therefore unloved employees.

Both quotes are from the forum of


Who or what is the...

Nuclear lobby

Quote from Wikipedia:

... The energy industry, in particular the four major energy companies in Germany (RWE, EON, EnBW and Vattenfall), initially had to phase out nuclear energy for the first time under the red-green party in 2000 with the "Agreement between the Federal Government and the energy supply companies". accept the government of Gerhard Schröder. After that, she worked with the help of her lobbying organizations, such as B. the German Atomic Forum (DAtF) and the Nuclear Technical Society (KTG), and supported by nuclear power advocates from politics towards a revision of the "nuclear consensus". The nuclear lobby tried to change their minds in the run-up to the 2009 federal election; in the fall of 2010, after extensive media campaigns, she was able to push through the extension of the lifetime of German nuclear power plants. Since March 2011, the nuclear lobby has been trying to delay or reverse the second nuclear phase-out under Angela Merkel ...


Quote from AtomkraftwerkePlag:

The atomic lobby is made up of organizations, corporations and people from politics, business, research and the media who support and promote the use of atomic energy for political and economic reasons and / or often also out of personal convictions. These are networked nationally or internationally and pursue the goal of extending the service life of nuclear power plants, promoting the construction of new nuclear power plants and delaying and reversing the nuclear phase-out that has been decided in some countries. In order to achieve this goal, the atomic lobby tries systematically with the help of standardized argumentation to influence and manipulate politics and the public in its own way ...


Uranium economy

Quote from Wikipedia:

Uranium economy is understood to mean all economic activities ranging from the extraction and processing of uranium, through trading in uranium products, to industrial and military use. Not to forget the handling of what is left of the party: Thousands of tons of highly toxic, radioactive nuclear waste are transported, stored and sometimes hidden by some dubious companies!

Radioactive waste

arises from the extraction and processing of uranium or plutonium as well as from its use to generate nuclear energy. All Nuclear powers, States with a nuclear weapons program have significant amounts of radioactive waste from development, research and production that they have to deal with. Countries that operate "only a few" nuclear power plants or research reactors have a very similar problem, only a few tons less nuclear waste ...

The transport, treatment and storage of nuclear waste have become more and more expensive, also due to higher security requirements. Especially since 1994 nuclear waste can no longer simply be dumped into the sea, the 'disposal of radioactive waste' has developed into the most lucrative and promising area of ​​the uranium industry.

No wonder that the traditional 'big player' in the waste industry Mafia for many years in the business with the nuclear waste is committed!


Who the f... is MIC?!

The term military-industrial complex (MIC) is used in socio-critical analyzes to describe the close cooperation and mutual relationships between politicians, representatives of the military and representatives of the armaments industry.

As early as 1961, the ex-general and outgoing US President Eisenhower warned in his farewell speech:

“We in the institutions of government have to protect ourselves from unauthorized influence - intentional or unintentional - by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the catastrophic increase in misdirected forces is there and will continue to exist. We must never allow the power of this combination to endanger our freedoms or our democratic processes. We shouldn't take anything for granted. Only vigilant and informed citizens can force the gigantic industrial and military defense machinery to be properly networked with our peaceful methods and goals so that security and freedom can grow and flourish together. "

YouTube video:

US President Dwight D. Esenhower giving his farewell address on January 17.01.1961, XNUMX.US President Dwight D. Eisenhower: Warning about the military-industrial complex

(Art - 00:01:54)

The farewell speech of the outgoing US President Eisenhower on Jan. 17, 1961 is an excerpt from the Arte documentation "Why we fight - America's wars". 

His successor John F. Kennedy also spoke very clear words on the subject of "influencing the military-industrial complex" ...

Post-JFK US Presidents were by then so "aligned" or intimidated that they abandoned all efforts to protect democracy from the influence of the MIC.

The military-industrial complex was also so strong in the two other nuclear countries of the western alliance (Great Britain and France) that the representatives of civil society were unable to effectively contain the power of the MIC.

In Germany at the same time there was an atomic bomb fan Franz Josef Strauss the 'Federal Minister of Defence' (He was a great pocket filler and would certainly have made an excellent horror clown if the German voters had voted for him.) and there was plenty of money to hand out and pocket...

In 2012, the defence minister Serdyukov had to resign in Russia. He had dared to question the omnipotence of the Russian MIC and in fact tried to limit its influence.

Nothing new in the West, and neither in the East!



History and mythology Uranium mining
Uranium research Fissile Atoms
Nuclear accidents Nuclear lobby / uranium economy / MIC

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Notes and further links


Uranium, uranium












- -


Ionizing radiation



Federal Office for Radiation Protection:


Uranium economy



Uranium mining - uranium extraction



Uranium processing



nuclear waste



MiK - Military-Industrial Complex




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