Newsletter XXXII 2022

The THTR Circular

07 to ... August



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Current news+ Background knowledge


Nuclear Power Accidents

This PDF file contains an almost complete list of known accidents and releases of radioactivity. As new information becomes available, this PDF will be expanded and updated...

Excerpt from the PDF file for this month:


01 August 1983 (INES Class.?NPP Pickering, ON, CAN

02 August 1992 (INES Class.?NPP Pickering, ON, CAN

04 August 2005 (INES Class.?NPP Indian Point, NY, USA

06 August 1945 (1st atomic bomb dropped by the USA) Hiroshima, JPN

09 August 1945 (2st atomic bomb dropped by the USA) Nagasaki, JPN

09 August 2004 (INES 1 Class.?NPP Mihama, JPN

09 August 2009 (INES 1 Class.?NPP Gravelines, FRA

10 August 1985 (INES 5) Submarine K-431, USSR

12 August 2001 (INES 2) NPP Phillipsburg, GER

12 August 2000, Submarine K-141_ Kursk, RUS

18 August 2015 (INES 2) NPP Blayais, FRA

19 August 2008 (INES 1) NPP Santa Maria de Garona, ESP

21 August 2007 (INES 2) NPP Beznau, CHE

21 August 1945 (INES 4) Los Alamos, NM, USA

25 August 2008 (INES 3) IRE Fleurus, BEL

29 August 1949 (1st USSR atomic bomb test) Semipalatinsk, KAZ

30 August 2003, Submarine K-159, RUS


We are looking for current information. If you can help, please send a message to:



11. August


Runtime debate | environmental associations | klagen

Environmental groups: Will sue against longer nuclear power plant runtimes

The mood in the nuclear debate is extremely tense. Proponents want the reactors to run for years, critics are calling for them to be switched off. They see no benefit in this and are ready to sue.

If the Bundestag decides to extend the operating times for German nuclear power plants, environmental organizations at all levels want to take legal action against this. The Bund Naturschutz, together with all other environmental organizations such as Greenpeace, is appealing to Chancellor Olaf Scholz (SPD) and the SPD and Greens members of the Bundestag to prevent re-entry into the nuclear industry, said the head of the Bund Naturschutz Bayern, Richard Mergner, on Thursday in Munich . Otherwise they would jointly pursue all legal remedies so that the German reactors would be shut down on December 31 as planned.


For graduate physicist Oda Becker, the more than 30-year-old nuclear power plants are incalculable safety risks. Important safety checks are overdue, natural and climate hazards are underestimated, there is no protection against terrorist attacks or plane crashes, internationally recognized safety rules are implemented only slowly and many faults in the reactors are still only discovered by coincidence.

In addition, according to Becker, the piles are becoming more vulnerable due to their age. An investigation on your part has shown that in the three remaining reactors Isar 2, Emsland and Neckar-Westheim there have been 2016 reportable, partly safety-related events since 40 that can be attributed to aging.



10. August


Isar | Stress test | Scholz

Isar 2: Eon ready for talks about longer nuclear power plant duration

The energy company is open to longer operation of the nuclear power plant in Lower Bavaria. But first they want to wait for an examination by the federal government.

Eon SE is ready to talk about extending the life of its last nuclear power plant. The Isar 2 plant in Bavaria is actually scheduled to go offline at the end of the year, but the precarious Russian gas supplies have triggered a new debate about the date. The federal government has commissioned a stress test on energy security and a possible extension of nuclear power plant runtimes, the results of which are expected shortly. Federal Chancellor Olaf Scholz recently said that it "could make sense" to keep the nuclear power plants running in order to ensure security of supply ...



Oh oh, Olaf Scholz!

Maybe he didn't understand?

Keeping nuclear power plants running saves very little gas and costs far too much:

  1. The immense costs for continued operation would probably be the most expensive kilowatt hours of all time.
  2. X million € insurance for the nuclear vehicles, which the operators will certainly not pay.
  3. Buckling in front of MIK would mean Scholzen's political end.

Be careful, Olaf Scholzomat the 1st, otherwise it will soon be:

Who betrayed us? The Scholzial Democrats!


Poland | SMR

Construction of nuclear reactors near the German border is taking on more concrete forms

In the energy crisis, neighboring Poland continues to rely on the construction of new nuclear power plants. "Small Modular Reactors" are to be built in Legnica, just 200 kilometers south-east of Frankfurt (Oder). Another is planned near Danzig.

Energy crisis in Europe: Spain switches off the street lighting in pedestrian zones, in Italy the air conditioning stays off below 25 degrees and in Germany they are considering extending the operating times of the last three nuclear power plants.

But when it comes to nuclear energy, opinions differ, at least in Germany. Poland, on the other hand, relies on the construction of a new reactor. A nuclear power plant is to be built in Zarnowiec near Gdansk from 2026. Also in the Legnica special economic zone - 200 kilometers southeast of Frankfurt (Oder) - new nuclear reactors are to be built as so-called small modular reactors (SMR).

Pre-contract already signed

The preliminary contract for such a plant with ten mini-reactors was signed a few days ago. Two companies will take part in the construction of the facility - DB Energy and Last Energy Polska, says Ryszard Wawryniewicz, Vice-President of the Legnica Special Economic Zone. "We are looking for a suitable location for the settlement of the mini-reactors in the Legnica special economic zone in order to ensure energy supplies in view of the global energy crisis," says Wawryniewicz. This is absolutely clean energy at an absolutely fair, affordable price for investors and the population. A small nuclear power plant with an output of 200 megawatts is planned near Legnica...


Ukraine | Nuclear disaster | rocket fire

Is a nuclear catastrophe looming in Zaporizhia, Ukraine?

Both warring parties blame each other and play with fire. The discussion about the danger includes the assessment: "Nuclear power is dead." A comment.

Now Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy has warned of a situation like that in Chernobyl in view of the shelling of the large Ukrainian nuclear power plant Zaporizhia:

The world should not forget Chernobyl and remember that the Zaporizhia nuclear power plant is the largest in Europe.

He reminded that one reactor exploded in Chernobyl in Ukraine, but Zaporizhia has six reactors, which could lead to a far greater catastrophe.

The comparison by Zelenskyj is factually nonsensical, politically based on effects. It makes a big difference whether there is a meltdown because a planned shutdown of the reactor is carried out with serious breaches of safety regulations, or when nuclear reactors are fired at with rockets.

What the Ukrainian President doesn't explain is who is responsible for the rocket fire that damaged the facility...


Cracks | radiation damage

Nuclear power: measurement method shows hidden material damage

Calorimetry could improve monitoring of old nuclear reactors

Radiation damage made visible: A new method can detect hidden material defects in nuclear reactors - and thus increase the safety of older nuclear power plants. This is made possible by a calorimetric measurement that can detect hidden damage to the material structure based on the energy released. This opens up the opportunity to also detect such micro-damages in reactor walls or lines caused by the radiation that were previously undetectable.

... The problem, however, is that many nuclear reactors in Germany and around the world are decades old. The material of their pressure vessels, cooling lines and other components was exposed to radioactive radiation for a correspondingly long time. However, this inevitably leads to damage: "The irradiation changes materials because it causes defects in their structure," explain Charles Hirst from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and his colleagues. This in turn leads to material fatigue, cracks and, in extreme cases, leaks.


According to the researchers, this measurement method can help to better monitor the safety of older nuclear reactors in particular. "We can only keep these nuclear power plants online if we can be sure that they will continue to operate correctly," said MIT senior author Michael Short. And this is exactly where differential scanning calorimetry can help. A tiny sample of material from the critical reactor components is sufficient for the measurement.

The method works with metal as well as with ceramic materials or semiconductors. As Short explains, the team deliberately used titanium as the test material because metals are the most difficult to measure. "If it works with that, then everything else will work," says Short. "This method can therefore be used almost anywhere."



10 August 1985 (INES 5) Submarine K-431, USSR


List of accidents in nuclear facilities

A serious accident occurred in Chazhma Bay near Vladivostok after refueling the nuclear-powered submarine K-31 (K-431). The next day the reactor core was again flooded with the moderating cooling water and was therefore critical. Nevertheless, the reactor cover, including the control rods, was raised again to fix a leak. A spontaneous chain reaction ensued. The cooling water exploded, throwing the reactor's 12-ton lid and innards onto the pier and also damaging the submarine's pressure hull. Ten people died from a fatal neutron dose, and another 29 people received high doses of radiation. The weakly radioactive cloud only reached a few kilometers as the inventory was fresh. (INES: 5)

Project 675 - Echo II Class - K-31 (K-431)

On August 10, 1985, the boat was anchored in Chasma Bay, 55 km from the city of Vladivostok, at a naval facility to receive new fuel rods for its reactors. A spontaneous chain reaction occurred as a result of a mistake when loosening and lifting the upper closure of a reactor. The reactor cover blew off and ruptured the boat's pressure hull, allowing water to enter the hull and K-431 sank to the bottom next to the pier. Ten crew members were killed. During the accident and the subsequent rescue work, seven people were severely irradiated and 39 others suffered from radiation sickness. The reactor compartment was then filled with cement and K-431 towed to a long-term storage facility. In 2010, the boat was transferred to the Stern shipyard in Bolshoi Kamen and its scrapping began.

List of U-boat accidents since 1945

Echo II class nuclear submarine. Steam explosion in one of the reactors during refueling in Pavlovsky Bay near Vladivostok ...



09. August


Japan | emergency system | down

Cause still unclear

Emergency system at Japan's Hamoaka nuclear power plant failed

According to the Japanese nuclear regulatory authority (NRA), the data transmission of the emergency system of the Hamaoka nuclear power plant has failed for reasons that are still unknown. The Emergency Response Support System (ERSS) monitors the status of all nuclear reactors in Japan.

The reactors at Chubu Electric Power's nuclear power plant are all shut down and no problems have been identified that could have led to the outage.

Emergency system does not get any data from the reactor

According to the NRA and Chubu Electric, around 8:5 a.m. on Aug. 40, the utility was unable to transmit reactor data, including containment internal pressure and temperature readings. The cause of the malfunction is still under investigation ...


Ukraine war | nuclear war | international law

Danger of nuclear war: Politics on the edge of the abyss

Since the beginning of the Ukraine war, the danger of a nuclear war in Europe has become real again. And probably bigger than at any point since the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962.

Today marks the 77th anniversary of the atomic bombing of the Japanese city of Nagasaki. Since then, the world has seldom been as close to a nuclear inferno as it is today. Its prevention remains the most important political task of our time.

But what is happening in the Ukraine is also known as "brinkmanship"; this term means "a policy on the edge of the abyss", "a policy of extreme risk", "playing with fire". And, of course, "brinkmanship" is the exact opposite of a policy of reason, which is now absolutely necessary and which those responsible in politics are so happy to complain to us about their actions.

First of all, let it be said: The Ukraine war that Russia started in February 2022 is a catastrophe, violates Article 2, Paragraph 4 of the Charter of the United Nations and is therefore contrary to international law.

In their international relations, all members shall refrain from any threat or use of force directed against the territorial integrity or political independence of a state or otherwise incompatible with the purposes of the United Nations.
UN Charter, Article 2, Paragraph 4

But this war has that in common with many other wars since 1945 and especially in the last few decades that have been waged by the USA and NATO, such as the war against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1999, in which Germany also played a leading role, or against Iraq in 2003. These wars also violated international law, claimed hundreds of thousands of lives and destroyed states...


Zaporizhia | Drone | IAEA

Kamikaze at the Zaporizhia nuclear power plant

The Vienna Atomic Energy Commission (IAEA) has been alarmed for days because of reports about the recent fighting at the Ukrainian nuclear power plant. Director General Rafael Mariano Grossi: There must be no accidents, the IAEA must visit the nuclear power plant as soon as possible. "It's urgent". His plan: an agreement on a cordon sanitaire for nuclear power plants. In detail: The signatories undertake not to attack or damage these facilities in the event of war. To this end, he defined “seven pillars”. The nuclear power plant will only be operated safely if everyone is observed. However: All of these rules would be violated in the Zaporizhia nuclear power plant, explained the IAEA director. The bottom line: So far, no government has responded to his proposal. The German chancellor, the foreign minister, the president of the European Commission, everyone who is otherwise so eloquent has so far remained silent on this proposal. The following detailed description shows how dangerous the situation is.

On August 5, the Ukrainian nuclear power plant Zaporizhia, located about 70 kilometers south-west of the city of the same name on the banks of the Dnieper, came under fire. At noon and again in the evening, projectiles hit the site. Although none of the six reactors were hit, a high-voltage power line was damaged, triggering an emergency shutdown at one of the six units, of which only three were operational. At another reactor, the workforce had to throttle the output. There was also damage to peripheral equipment...


Solar Thermal | process heat | inexpensive

"Solar thermal energy can provide a significant part of industrial process heat"

In industry, heat generation is still heavily dependent on fossil fuels. This has become a problem for many companies in Germany, particularly as a result of the war in Ukraine and the gas price crisis. An alternative could be heat from solar thermal energy. energate spoke to Professor Robert Pitz-Paal about the potential and existing obstacles. He heads the Institute for Solar Research at the German Aerospace Center in Cologne.

energize: What potential do you see here for solar thermal energy to make industrial processes less dependent on oil and gas?

Pitz-Paal: The potential is enormous. Industrial processes use about half of the heat produced worldwide. Solar thermal had a share of less than 2018 percent in 0,02. The technical and solar requirements are such that solar thermal energy can provide a significant part of the industrial process heat. I see great potential in Germany for medium-sized companies. They often still have free space or can still use free roof space or parking lot canopies to install solar collectors. Photovoltaic systems, whose electricity can generate heat by means of direct heating, are also a conceivable alternative. The advantage of solar thermal energy, however, is that the thermal energy yield per square meter of area is about three times that of PV systems. With heat generation costs of well under 5 cents per kilowatt hour, solar thermal energy is one of the cheapest directly available alternatives. The heat can also be stored very cheaply in large tanks and is therefore also available after sunset...


Gas storage at 71,99% | Bundesnetzagentur | gas supply

Gas storage facilities in Germany are filling up despite lower deliveries

In the gas crisis, Germany builds up its gas reserves despite lower deliveries. The gas storage tanks fill up.

... As data from European gas storage operators showed on the Internet on Monday, the filling level on Saturday morning at the beginning of the so-called gas day was an average of 71,99 percent and thus 0,66 percentage points above the previous day's value. At the end of last month, the head of the Federal Network Agency, Klaus Müller, believed that Germany was on the right track when it came to gas storage.


A new regulation stipulates that German storage facilities must be at least 1 percent full by September 75st. The further timetable provides for the following stages: on October 1st it should be at least 85 percent and on November 1st at least 95 percent.

The proclaimed 75 percent target seems achievable in view of the current development. The capacity of the Baltic Sea pipeline Nord Stream 1 is currently only being used to 20 percent.


In its current report on the gas situation in Germany, the Federal Network Agency comes to the following assessment: "The situation is tense and a further deterioration of the situation cannot be ruled out. However, the gas supply in Germany is stable at the moment. The security of supply in Germany is currently further guaranteed." ...



09 August 2009 (INES 1 Class.?NPP Gravelines, FRA

Wikipedia - English

Nuclear power accidents by country#France

In August 2009, during the annual refueling in Reactor 1, a fuel assembly caught on the upper handling structure, halting operations and prompting the evacuation and isolation of the reactor building...


AFP - Agence France-Presse

The ASN provisionally classifies the incident as level 1 on the INES scale (International nuclear event scale), which ranges from 0 to 7.

The Authority recalls that, in September 2008, a similar incident occurred at the Tricastin nuclear power plant operated by EDF in the commune of Saint-Paul-Trois-Chateaux (Drôme).

Translated with (free version)


Information on this accident and other similar incidents is available in German Wikipedia not or no longer to be found ...



09 August 2004 (INES 1 Class.?NPP Mihama, JPN


Akw Mihama # line break 2004 and other incidents

In August 2004, at Mihama-3, a condensate line in the non-nuclear secondary circuit broke longitudinally and circumferentially. The escaping hot water turned to steam and scalded workers; five died and six others were injured. The cause was corrosion and sloppiness: the wall thickness of the line had thinned from an initial 10 mm to around 1,5 mm, and the line is said not to have been checked since the reactor was commissioned. The vulnerability had been known a year earlier...

Despite its serious consequences, the 2004 accident was only classified as INES level 1.


United States

09 August 1945 (2st atomic bomb dropped by the USA) Nagasaki, JPN


Fat man

August 9, 1945 - Dropping of the 2nd Atomic Bomb - Plutonium Bomb 'Fat Man' - on Nagasaki! (Explosive power 21.000 tons of TNT)

Fat Man was the code name of the Mark 3 nuclear weapon design developed by US, British and Canadian scientists as part of the Manhattan Project. The first nuclear explosion in history on July 16, 1945, the Trinity test, was based on this design. A Fat Man bomb was dropped by a US B-9 bomber from the 1945th Composite Group on 29 August 509 and detonated at 11:02 am over the Japanese city of Nagasaki, which was largely destroyed. The bomb exploded about 550 meters above a densely populated area and developed an explosive force of about 21 kilotons of TNT ...


Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

The two atomic bomb blasts killed a total of about 92.000 people instantly.
A further 130.000 people died as a result of the attacks by the end of 1945, and countless others died from consequential damage in the years that followed.



08. August


Emsland | compression operation

No stretch operation possible

The Emsland nuclear power plant is scheduled to go offline

Three nuclear power plants are still running in Germany, and there is a political debate about leaving them temporarily connected to the grid in view of the looming energy crisis. At least for the Emsland nuclear power plant in Lower Saxony, this is not planned, explains the SPD-led state government.

Lower Saxony does not plan to continue operating the Emsland nuclear power plant, which is scheduled to be shut down at the end of December. "The reactor will go offline at the end of the year," State Environment Minister Olaf Lies told Der Spiegel. "Everything else does not make sense." As justification, the SPD politician referred to the condition of the fuel elements in the reactor. "The fuel elements have already burned down to such an extent that they no longer have enough energy to run at full capacity by the end of the year." That's why the nuclear power plant will go into a so-called compression operation in November anyway...


Zaporizhia | suicidal

Because of the attack on the Zaporizhia nuclear power plant

UN Secretary-General Guterres: Attacks on nuclear power plants are 'suicidal'

The nuclear power plant in Zaporizhia in Ukraine has been shelled several times. Against this background, UN Secretary-General António Guterres sees the danger of a nuclear escalation returning. He speaks of "suicidal attacks".

UN Secretary-General António Guterres has warned of a nuclear confrontation in the wake of the attacks on Ukraine's Zaporizhia nuclear power plant. After decades of nuclear disarmament, the world is moving backwards again, he said Monday at a news conference in Tokyo on the sidelines of the Hiroshima peace memorial ceremony marking the 77th anniversary of the first atomic bombing. This is reported by the Reuters news agency.

There are 13.000 atomic bombs worldwide and a lot of money is flowing into the modernization of the arsenals that is needed much more elsewhere. "Therefore, this is the time to say: stop it." He called attacks on nuclear power plants "suicidal," referring to recent events in Russia's war against Ukraine...


Runtime debate | orchestrated | supply fears

Nuclear debate orchestrated? Citizens' initiative asks questions about »Isar 2«

The citizens' initiative for environmental protection in Lüchow-Dannenberg commented on the ongoing debate about returning to nuclear power in a press release on Sunday:

The citizens' initiative for environmental protection Lüchow-Dannenberg (BI) finds numerous aspects in the debate about a nuclear power plant stretch operation or an extension of the service life extremely in need of clarification. (...) BI spokesman Wolfgang Ehmke: "We have now contacted the Federal Environment Ministry directly and asked them to examine two questions in order to get objectivity back into the exuberant energy debate." The focus of the BI questions is on the Isar 2 nuclear reactor Landshut. It should supply electricity for Bavaria if gas supplies from Russia continue to flow sparsely or dry up completely. According to the story, Isar 2 could use the fuel rods now in use until the end of their technical lifetime. According to the Süddeutsche Zeitung, the reactor could even generate around five terawatt hours of electricity.

The output of Isar 2 is 1.410 MW (megawatt, jW). That would mean that there could still be around 150 full-load days, BI calculates: “How is it that Isar 2 still has unused fuel elements of this size at all? Is that a misguided company strategy, or was an 'arrow' deliberately placed in the quiver in order to be able to get the government coalition in Berlin under pressure?" ask the opponents of nuclear power from Wendland ...


storage | control power | excess power

Energy supply What happens to excess electricity

Power generation from wind or sun is subject to large fluctuations. But the power grid must be stable - and so far there has been a lack of energy storage. How is the security of supply working?

The energy transition poses challenges for Germany. And at the latest with the throttling of Russian gas supplies, these are still growing. Becoming more independent and producing your own energy is becoming increasingly important.

According to the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology, renewable energies will account for the largest share in the future, especially wind and solar power. The advantage: they produce hardly any climate-damaging emissions. The disadvantage: They are considered to be so-called fluctuating or volatile energy sources - that is, they never feed the same amount of energy into the grid because they are dependent on the weather, time of day or season.


In order for the network to remain stable, it must always remain on a certain frequency. In Germany, this so-called target frequency is 50 Hertz. Due to the expansion of renewable energies, the grid could get out of balance more often; After all, wind and sun cannot be planned.

Importance of electricity storage

To avoid imbalances, storing electricity is a much-discussed idea. If renewable energies temporarily produce more electricity than is consumed, the surplus could be temporarily stored and called up on days with less energy...

2021 - US military spending around 800,7 billion Dollar

United States | Democrats | Social climate package

The Senate has a narrow majority 430 billion Dollar approved for social and climate issues

US Senate passes social and climate package

It's about hundreds of billions of dollars: With a narrow democratic majority, the US Senate has decided on massive investments in climate protection and social affairs. This was preceded by tough negotiations - also within the party.

With a narrow majority of Democrats, the US Senate has passed a bill for massive investments in the social sector and climate protection, among other things. US Vice President Kamala Harris - who also presides over the Senate - cast the decisive vote for a simple majority.

Republicans voted unanimously against the so-called Anti-Inflation Act. With amendments, they had delayed adoption for almost 16 hours. In the end, all of the Democratic senators plus Harris voted in favor of the bill, providing the necessary majority of 51 votes.


The package now includes around 430 billion dollars. The vast majority, 370 billion, is earmarked for energy security and climate protection, with more than 60 billion going to healthcare...



Congratulations, the Democrats have pulled themselves together and won an important victory!

But don't forget, of the 370 billion for energy security, unfortunately a considerable part will go to nuclear energy.



07. August


Ukraine war | release of radioactivity

War in Ukraine:

Worry after nuclear bombardment

According to the Ukrainian energy authority, one of three reactors in operation is said to have been taken off the grid. There is a risk of radioactive substances escaping.

Kyiv taz | After the shelling of Europe's largest nuclear power plant, the Zaporizhia nuclear power plant in Enerhodar, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) panics. The organization wants to send a delegation to the power plant in the near future. However, it is questionable whether this will work. The organization has been trying to get access for months. So far, the Ukrainian atomic energy agency Energoatom has opposed such a visit, fearing that such a visit would legitimize Russia's occupation of the nuclear power plant.

According to Energoatom, Russian troops attacked the nuclear power plant twice on August 5. A high-voltage power line was also destroyed. In addition, the Russian army attacked the nuclear power plant with multiple rockets, which landed near a reactor.

One of three running reactors had to be taken off the grid because of the destroyed high-voltage line, reports Energoatom. In addition, a nitrogen-oxygen station and an outbuilding were badly damaged during these attacks, there is still a risk of leakage of radioactive substances and the risk of fire is also high ...


Runtime debate | Exit | Stretch operation

Nuclear power renaissance

Switch off now more than ever!

A guest contribution by Achim Brunnengräber, Albert Denk and Lucas Schwarz

Nuclear power is a climate-friendly source of energy, thanks to which we can get through the winter safely? Are you kidding me? Are you serious when you say that! Five reasons against the continued operation of nuclear power plants, which are being suppressed in the current debate.

Nuclear power is once again making the headlines - phase-out, stretching operation or lifetime extension? Currently, the debate is fueled by the war-related crisis and gas shortages. The idea of ​​cold showers, unheated living spaces and exorbitant electricity bills has an existential and threatening effect on many people. However, fear is rarely a good advisor. It leads to increasingly populist tendencies in the debate as well as to simplifications and shortenings. The view is narrowed to supposedly climate-neutral nuclear power plants, which in times of war are supposed to get us through the next winter.

It is not without reason, however, that this form of energy production has led to violent conflicts for decades. In addition, the Russian war of aggression in Ukraine shows once again what dangers emanate from nuclear power plants, especially in times of war. Nevertheless, pro-nuclear actors see their chance to make nuclear power socially acceptable again in Germany beyond the gateway of possible stretching. Lifetime extensions including the procurement of new fuel elements or even new nuclear power plants are brought into play. The diverse arguments against nuclear power are suppressed in the debate:

First, nuclear power is one of the most polluting sources of energy in human history, despite popular claims to the contrary...


biogas | Bioenergy | renewable

How a bioenergy village can become an energy transition village

A new FNR guide is intended to support municipalities in reviewing the business models of their expiring EEG plants and in developing new business areas.

The first bioenergy villages are now celebrating their 20th anniversary. Biogas plants are in operation in many of these villages, and according to the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG), they receive guaranteed remuneration for 20 years. The question now arises as to whether and how the energy supply following the EEG can be designed and further developed in an economically viable manner.

In the guide "From bioenergy village to energy transition village" a team of authors from the universities in Kassel and Göttingen presents promising options for action and business models ...

2021 - US military spending around 800,7 billion Dollar

United States | republican | Climate social package

US Senate initiates debate on climate and social package

The Congress Chamber will vote on the billion-euro investments. All 50 Democrats backed the law - a major achievement for US President Joe Biden.

A year and a half after taking office, US President Joe Biden is within reach of an important success. With a slim majority of US Democrats, the Senate in Washington decided to debate a draft law for massive investments in the social sector and climate protection, among other things. Vice President Kamala Harris, who also heads the Senate, cast the deciding vote for a simple majority in the evening. It was a procedural vote to get the so-called Anti-Inflation Act up for debate in the Chamber of Congress in the first place. However, the vote has symbolic power because it made it clear that all 50 Democrats in the Senate support the package.

According to Biden, the draft should bring "groundbreaking changes for working families". The Democrat took office with promises of major reforms, but so far these have not materialized. The package now available has been shrunk several times and now looks round 370 billion dollars for energy security and climate protection 64 billion dollars for health care...



In the USA in 2022, it is already a success for the president if he manages to get his bill allowed to be debated in the Senate.

Money for climate and social affairs? In the eyes of "Friends of MIC" the money is theirs, and MIC wants the money, so the Republicans will continue their political rampage. Always according to the old motto: No way, only over your corpses!


Ukraine | nuclear state

Ukrainian nuclear power plants as a weapon of war:

What Robert Jungk already knew

In war there are no more rules. Civilian nuclear power can become a catastrophic threat if attacked.

... The United Nations charter, international law and the statutes of the International Atomic Energy Agency outlaw armed attacks on civilian nuclear facilities, but in a war such documents are worth almost nothing. With this, Zaporizhia exposes the slogan "Atoms for Peace" as an empty phrase. With these words, US President Eisenhower opened the door to the “peaceful use of atomic energy” in 1953.

His concept was to help the countries of the world build up a civilian nuclear economy, provided they agreed in return to subject their military nuclear programs to UN control. Now civilian nuclear power is also becoming a weapon in war. The publicist Robert Jungk once had a more sensitive eye for the connections.

As early as 1977 he wrote in his book "Atomic State" that "with the technical utilization of nuclear power, the leap into a completely new form of violence had been dared". Even the declared intention to use the technology only for constructive purposes does not change anything about its "hostile character" ...


Dear friends,

It's madness: Ironically, the super-GAU technology is being hyped more and more as a "safe" energy saver, completely without facts, under pressure from the FDP, CDU and CSU. Every day we talk about nuclear energy is a day wasted on expanding renewables. Almost nothing is happening there because the nuclear, coal and gas lobbies want to save their old structures.

Hence the urgent call for an anti-nuclear demonstration again today
Sunday, August 7th, in Gronau:

13 p.m.: Kick-off bike demo Gronau train station

13.15 p.m.: Start of bike demo at Ochtrup train station

14 p.m.: Joint rally UAA Gronau

The anniversary of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki makes it clear what nuclear power means. And President Putin has been openly threatening nuclear weapons again for months. But our neighbors France and Great Britain have also wanted to "modernize" and expand their nuclear arsenals for years. With his murderous war, Putin is delivering the ball through the ball - and he's taking Ukraine hostage with nuclear weapons. This has never happened before and it's creepy. The uranium enrichment in Gronau is a central building block for the irresponsible use of civilian nuclear energy - and at the same time a technical key to the construction of atomic bombs. NRW is still a nuclear country and supplies high-risk reactors worldwide.

Nuclear energy is not the solution, it is part of the problem. The clinging to nuclear power (as well as coal and gas) has sabotaged the expansion of renewables for far too long. We will not look on while the same parties and lobbyists are now driving the urgently needed energy transition up against the wall for years to come.

On to Gronau!!

Prevent lifetime extensions - enforce nuclear phase-out - outlaw nuclear weapons - save energy transition!

Nuclear-free climate greetings

Action alliance Münsterland against nuclear facilities, SOFA (Immediate nuclear phase-out) Münster,



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Current news+ Background knowledge


News+ August 07




MerzthutjanixKini JödlerCalculation artist Lindner

Real politicians who don't do what is necessary

The politicians of this world are obviously no longer in a position, willing or able to practice a politics of reason, and above all I have the impression that these incompetent politician actors have not even understood what is actually at stake.

PutIn's Russia is waging a senseless war that is costing many lives, damaging nature and the environment beyond measure and could at best mean the political end for PutIn itself. Now his soldiers are playing hide-and-seek with their former Warsaw Pact allies, the soldiers of Ukraine, at the Zaporizhia nuclear power plant, provoking another nuclear catastrophe in Europe.

Hello you two Wladimirs, are you both not very close anymore?

You've already ruined Ukraine, and Russia's economy will sooner or later go down the drain. Apart from right-wing, chauvinistic slogans, nothing more can be expected from PutIn and his entourage, but also from their opponents in the Ukraine, who in many respects are no better.

In America, meanwhile, right-wing Republicans are driving the entire state to the brink of insanity with religious zeal that reaches into the inhumane and constant threats of armed violence. The USA is no longer the land of the free and the brave, but is increasingly developing into a failed state of the Wild West modeled on the Taliban, only with three crosses on each wall and a much more magnificent board in front of the head.

China no longer wants to talk to the US about the climate because Nancy Pelosi flew to Taiwan?! Xipping Pooh also behaves like a defiant sandcastle destroyer who will not rest until he has eaten enough sand and conquered the last mold (Taiwan).

Kindergarten, toddler group? No, the little shitheads are better behaved and more cooperative!

Pathetic, the whole political world seems to be turning into a headless chicken coop.

The situation reminds me a lot of what I heard at school about world politics a hundred years ago. People are running again around the world horror clowns, liars and pied pipers, even though their destructive intentions are plain to see.

Is it an irrational religious desire in people for self-punishment that is being expressed here?

UN chief Guterres and a few others seem to have kept track. But nobody listened to the UNO and to clever people who still practice the old cultural technique of thinking for a long time.

And when I look into our own German front yard, I only see useless garden gnomes. There's someone lurking around who looks like Methusalix with aviator glasses and stretching out the middle finger to the schoolchildren who are scared of the climate. At the very front of the fence, a dwarf in a jacket makes the riotous solo entertainer for insatiable arsonist Springer journalists, and the young dynamic man in the dwarf Porsche looks like the special offer mannekin from the discounter flyer, chic facade but nothing behind it.

All irresponsible garden gnomes in ties and collars who have never used their shovels and wheelbarrows, just pretending to do something.

There's a lot to do, let the others do it

The climate is tipping, the country is drying up, and the nuclear lobbyists and pocket filler All parties have only one topic: the extension of the service life or, even better, the continued operation of the uranium steam engines until the end of the day. Their real interest, however, is exactly what they deny with an energetic shake of the head: a return to the uranium economy.

In the WDR article linked below, Söder says it bluntly: "It is important to us that nuclear power continues to be used ..." and Merz: "We don't want to go back to the old nuclear energy...". I'm sure that Merz is telling the truth in this first half-sentence. The "Friends of MIC" really don't want to go back to the old, fault-prone nuclear power plant, which, in addition to a lot of money and plutonium, stupidly also brought in a lot of trouble.

The whole term debate of the last few weeks and months is just a diversionary tactic to cover up the real dreams (dreams, are my reality...) and goals of the nuclear lobby. In the second half of the sentence it becomes clear: " ... we do not want to go back to permanent operation of these systems ...".

New nuclear-powered power sources, consisting of nothing but small, "harmless" SMRs (Small Modular Reactors) should produce energy without any problems and bring in a lot of money for the pocket fillers - without constantly causing trouble. If such a reactor module breaks, burns out or burns out, it can simply be thrown away (???) and replaced with a new module. Theoretically at least, if you are ready, naive and stupid enough to put your trust and lots of money in the highly reputable scrap dealers in the nuclear industry.

Horst Blume: "... people who have always been particularly in favor of nuclear power plants are now leading the way. They now dare to come out of cover and try to ride their old hobbyhorse again, but the horse is dead."

Markus Söder and Friedrich Merz at the Isar 2 reactor
Horst Blume at the THTR

Friedrich Merz in particular seems to have his hands full, 1. fulfilling his childhood dreams (Above the clouds...) and 2. tending to the scars of the past. I can't help but get the impression that his whole heroic fight against the extinction of nuclear power plants is just a continuation of his lost argument with Mrs. Merkel. He's working through the past and the effort is written all over his face.

It was Mrs. Merkel who said at the time: "He can't do it!", wasn't it?

We would all be better off working on sustainable issues

For example: build solar, wind power and desalination plants not only on the North Sea and Baltic Sea, lay lines to the Alps to pump the sweet water and energy into the starving dry land, why not? Positive utopias are always better than these endless repetitions of "Back to the Future" on all channels.

What is it actually about

We have no time to lose, we must act now if we are truly serious about leaving our grandchildren a livable planet.

Non-fossil, non-nuclear, non-life threatening, everything must be produced in the most sustainable and renewable way possible. A country like Germany is perfectly capable of producing most of its hardware needs itself: wind turbines, solar panels and heat pumps; the same applies, of course, to the supply of drinking water, food and energy.

But those who lack the physical, mental and moral strength to work together cooperatively for a better future should retire and let those who are able and willing to use their forces wisely and positively work freely for the benefit of the people instead of constantly thinking about how best to line their pockets.

The same applies to those who do not have the necessary skills to perform their duties.

A finance minister, for example, should be able to count.
That means promoting the cheapest and most advanced forms of energy production by any means available and turning off the money supply to the more expensive and dangerous ones.

A prime minister should lead his country with foresight and integrity.
This doesn't mean cherry-picking in the present at the expense of others and blaming others for your own failures, or postponing the resolution of your self-inflicted problems to the distant future and dumping your own garbage elsewhere.

An opposition leader should give new impetus.
That's all I can think of about Friedrich Merz. However, I have a lot of confidence in him, a coalition with the right-wing extremists is undoubtedly part of it...

Oh dear, I think I quoted myself again.


A sequel will inevitably follow.



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Background knowledge




Map of the nuclear world:

MIC sucks us all dry, they try to trick us...


The internal search:


brought the following results, among others:


June 26, 2022 - Study: renewable energy more reliable than nuclear energy


April 28, 2022 - Wind flags and pocket fillers in tireless use


March 26, 2022 - A month of war in Ukraine: Development of a tragedy



YouTube channel - Reaktorpleite


arte documentary - 00:01:54

Excerpt from "Wy We Fight - America's Wars"

US President Dwight D. Eisenhower: Warning about the military-industrial complex


Terra X - 09:21

A Brief History of Peace


arte documentary - 00:52

Atomic Bomb: The most powerful bomb in the world


arte documentary - 01:38:43

Documentary: Why We Fight - America's Wars - The Military-Industrial Complex


German TV history - 01:06:28

Because we didn't know anything about it! This show is from 1958.

Atomic dust above us - dangers of radioactive radiation (documentation, 1958)


Will open in a new window! - YouTube channel "Reaktorpleite" playlist - radioactivity worldwide ... - - radioactivity worldwide ...

This playlist contains over 150 videos on the topic




This search engine is planting trees!


Keyword search: upgradeüstung





Small Modular Reactor

Small Modular Reactors (SMR, German "small modular reactors") are nuclear fission reactors that are smaller than conventional reactors and can therefore be manufactured in a factory and then taken to an assembly site. They are intended to enable less on-site effort, greater risk containment efficiency and greater security of the core materials used. SMRs have also been proposed to circumvent financial obstacles afflicting conventional nuclear reactors.


Of the 2017 nuclear power plants under construction worldwide as of mid-60, two are designated SMR:

Carem-25 (power 27 MW) in Argentina, prototype for a small pressurized water reactor dubbed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as a research reactor. Construction began in 2014, with an estimated progress of around 60%, the new construction phase continued in August 2020 with Nucleoeléctrica Argentina SA as the contractor.

As a replacement for the Bilibino 2020 nuclear power plant, the Akademik Lomonosov floating nuclear power plant has taken over the power and heat supply of Pewek, a town of 4.000 inhabitants in Siberia on the Chukchi Sea, as well as adjacent mines. It has been built in the port of St. Petersburg since 2007 on a 150 m long barge with two KLT-40C pressurized water reactors, each with an output of 35 MW.

  • In 2021, construction of an ACP100 named Linglong One began in Hainan. With an electrical output of 125 MW, the reactor is expected to generate 1 TWh of electricity annually.
  • The official and de facto nuclear powers and the NATO countries, with the exception of the Netherlands, did not take part in the negotiations and did not subsequently sign the treaty. Iran and Saudi Arabia took part in the negotiations as the only countries suspected of attempting to build or have nuclear weapons at their disposal, but they did not sign the treaty either...


On March 10, 2021, the Federal Office for the Safety of Nuclear Waste Management (BASE) presented a comprehensive report that considers 136 different historical and current reactors or SMR concepts, 31 of which are particularly detailed. The report prepared by the Öko-Institut on behalf of BASE provides an assessment of possible areas of application, the issue of final storage, safety issues and the risk of proliferation.

The results of the report include:

  • In order to generate the same electrical power worldwide as with conventional nuclear power plants, the construction of many thousands to tens of thousands of SMR systems would be necessary.
  • Compared to nuclear power plants with high output, individual SMRs could potentially achieve safety advantages, since they have a lower radioactive inventory per reactor. However, the high number of reactors required to produce the same amount of electrical power increases the overall risk many times over.
  • Contrary to what some manufacturers state, it must be assumed that in the event of a serious accident, the radioactive contamination will extend well beyond the site of the facility.
  • Due to the low electrical output, the construction costs for SMR are relatively higher than for large nuclear power plants. A production cost calculation taking into account scale, mass and learning effects from the nuclear industry suggests that an average of 3.000 SMRs would have to be produced before starting SMR production would be worthwhile.
  • In the event of a re-entry into nuclear energy, long-term operational, safety and accident risks would have to be accepted. Extensive interim storage and fuel transport would still be necessary. In any case, a repository would still be necessary.
  • The use of existing uranium reserves through partitioning and transmutation (P&T) concepts is only applicable to spent fuel rods. However, 40 percent of them have already been reprocessed in Germany. The resulting vitrified waste would not be amenable to P&T processes.
  • Although certain transuranic elements such as plutonium could be reduced in quantity, the amount of waste for other long-lived radioactive fission products would increase, e.g. T. even by up to 75 percent (cesium-135) compared to the amount to be stored without P&T.
  • Finally, there would remain the danger that the plutonium that had to be separated in the P&T process would be more easily accessible for weapon production.

The critical overall assessment states: None of the technologies discussed is currently or foreseeably available on the market. At the same time, they are being touted with promises similar to those made for reactors in the 1950s and 1960s.


resistance (politics)

Resistance is the refusal to obey or active opposition to the authorities or the government.

It is initially of secondary importance whether the rulers against whom resistance is being exercised exercise their rule legally, legitimately or illegally. Evaluations such as "justified resistance", goals and means of resistance, moral and legal concerns require an observer's point of view: it depends on who, where and at what time the evaluation is made. The resister will always evaluate the resistance differently than the one against whom the resistance is directed. The latter, however, is usually the "authority" who at the same time has the power to define law and order. Accordingly, resistance is outside the set order.

background and demarcation

Resistance as a form of social and political debate has been anchored in European political culture since ancient times. In almost all forms of society there was or is a consensus that resistance can be necessary and legitimate in certain cases. In specific cases, opinions sometimes differ.

Resistance must be distinguished from revolution because it is not fundamentally aimed at reforming the social order. In certain circumstances, the restoration of an old law or a legal system that has been repealed can be the central concern. Nevertheless, a movement that started as a resistance can lead to a revolution...



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Newsletter XXXI 2022 - August 01st to 06th | Newspaper article 2022



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